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  • JAMA January 10, 2017

    Figure 1: Projected Global Rates of Systolic Blood Pressure of 140 mm Hg or Higher

    Reported data are for both sexes combined and for individuals aged 25 years and older. Shading indicates 95% uncertainty intervals.
  • JAMA January 10, 2017

    Figure 2: Projected Global Disability-Adjusted Life-Years by Systolic Blood Pressure Level and Cause, 2015

    Reported data are for both sexes combined and for individuals aged 25 years and older. The boxes show the median and extend from the 25th to the 75th percentiles. The upper whiskers extend from the third quartile to the highest value within 1.5 × the IQR of the third quartile; the lower whiskers extend from the first quartile to the lowest value within 1.5 × the IQR of the first quartile. Data outside the the whisker range are plotted as open circles.aCategory includes rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, atrial fibrillation and flutter, aortic aneurysm, peripheral vascular disease, endocarditis, and other cardiovascular and circulatory diseases.
  • JAMA January 10, 2017

    Figure 3: Projected Age-Standardized Disability-Adjusted Life-Years by Systolic Blood Pressure of at Least 110 to 115 mm Hg, by Region and Cause, 2015

    Reported data include both sexes combined.aIncludes rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, atrial fibrillation and flutter, aortic aneurysm, peripheral vascular disease, endocarditis, and other cardiovascular and circulatory diseases.
  • JAMA January 10, 2017

    Figure 4: Projected Global Disability-Adjusted Life-Years by Systolic Blood Pressure Level and Country or Region, 2015

    Reported data include both sexes combined and individuals aged 25 years and older. Data are reported for the 3 most populous countries (United States, China, and India) to highlight burden at the highest population levels and utility of country-specific results. Data for other countries and regions are presented on a regional scale using super regions from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors study 2015 (the regions that contain the United States, China, and India were excluded to prevent double representation of the following results: high income, South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Asia, and Oceania) and have presented the remainder of countries from those super regions as an additional group. The boxes show the median and extend from the 25th to the 75th percentiles. The upper whiskers extend from the third quartile to the highest value within 1.5 × the IQR of the third quartile; the lower whiskers extend from the first quartile to the lowest value within 1.5 × the IQR of the first quartile. Data outside the whisker range are plotted as open circles.aCategory includes 45 countries.
  • Global Burden of Hypertension and Systolic Blood Pressure of at Least 110 to 115 mm Hg, 1990-2015

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    JAMA. 2017; 317(2):165-182. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.19043

    This population epidemiology study uses pooled global health evaluation surveys data to estimate trends in the association between elevated stystolic blood pressure and death and disability between 1990 and 2015.

  • JAMA November 15, 2016

    Figure: Population Attributable Fractions of Coronary Heart Disease Variables in the Early Era (1983-1990) vs Late Era (1996-2002)

    Abbreviations: CHD, coronary heart disease; SBP, systolic blood pressure; total:HDL-C, total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. Error bars indicate 95% CIs.
  • JAMA June 28, 2016

    Figure 1: Eligibility, Randomization, and Follow-up for Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) Intervention Trial (SPRINT) Participants Aged 75 Years or Older

    aSystolic blood pressure was required to be between 130 mm Hg and 180 mm Hg for participants taking 0 or 1 medication, 130 mm Hg to 170 mm Hg for participants taking 2 medications or fewer, 130 mm Hg to 160 mm Hg for participants taking 3 medications or fewer, and 130 mm Hg to 150 mm Hg for participants taking 4 medications or fewer.bIncreased cardiovascular risk was defined as presence of 1 or more of the following: (1) clinical or subclinical cardiovascular disease other than stroke, (2) chronic kidney disease (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 20 mL/min/1.73 m2 to 59 mL/min/1.73 m2 based on the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation and the latest laboratory value within the past 6 months), (3) Framingham risk score for 10-year cardiovascular risk of 15% or greater based on laboratory work done within the past 12 months for lipids, or (4) age of 75 years or older.
  • Intensive vs Standard Blood Pressure Control and Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in Adults Aged ≥75 Years: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    JAMA. 2016; 315(24):2673-2682. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.7050

    This randomized clinical trial evaluates the effects of intensive (<120 mm Hg) systolic blood pressure targets compared with standard (<140 mm Hg) systolic blood pressure targets in patients aged 75 years or older.

  • JAMA September 1, 2015

    Figure 4: Systolic Blood Pressure and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Patients Treated With Finerenone, 1.25-20 mg/d, or Placebo

    Error bars indicate standard deviation. Data are from the safety analysis set (n=821).
  • JAMA February 24, 2015

    Figure 3: Adjusted Graphical Regression Analysis of Combined Associations of INR Reversal, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Timing With Hematoma Enlargement

    Multivariable model for the combined associations, ie, extent and timing of international normalized ratio (INR) reversal and systolic blood pressure (BP), with hematoma enlargement. Hematoma enlargement was defined as relative volume increase of >33% on follow-up imaging. Adjustments consisted of all nonmodifiable parameters associated with hematoma enlargement, ie, time from symptom onset to imaging, deep intracerebral hemorrhage location, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and comorbidity (eTable 2 in the Supplement). OR indicates odds ratio.
  • JAMA February 10, 2015

    Figure 3: Standardized Associations Between 10–mm Hg Lower Systolic BP and All-Cause Mortality, Macrovascular Outcomes, and Microvascular Outcomes Stratified by Mean Systolic BP of Trial Participants at Entry

    Macrovascular outcomes include cardiovascular events, coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure; and microvascular outcomes include renal failure, retinopathy, and albuminuria. Mean baseline blood pressure (BP) is weighted by number of participants. The area of each square is proportional to the inverse variance of the estimate. Horizontal lines indicate 95% CIs of the estimate. SBP indicates systolic blood pressure.
  • JAMA February 10, 2015

    Figure 4: Standardized Associations Between 10–mm Hg Lower Systolic BP and All-Cause Mortality, Macrovascular Outcomes, and Microvascular Outcomes, Stratified by Mean Achieved Systolic BP in the Active Group of Each Trial

    Macrovascular outcomes include cardiovascular events, coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure; and microvascular outcomes include renal failure, retinopathy, and albuminuria. The mean achieved blood pressure (BP) is weighted by number of participants. The area of each square is proportional to the inverse variance of the estimate. Horizontal lines indicate 95% CIs of the estimate. SBP indicates systolic blood pressure.
  • Blood Pressure Lowering in Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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    JAMA. 2015; 313(6):603-615. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.18574

    This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the association between several means of blood pressure–lowering treatment and vascular disease in patients with diabetes.

  • JAMA February 10, 2015

    Figure 2: Standardized Associations Between 10–mm Hg Lower Systolic BP and All-Cause Mortality, Macrovascular Outcomes, and Microvascular Outcomes in Diabetic Patients

    Macrovascular outcomes include cardiovascular events, coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure; and microvascular outcomes include renal failure, retinopathy, and albuminuria. The area of each square is proportional to the inverse variance of the estimate. Horizontal lines indicate 95% CIs of the estimate. BP indicates blood pressure.
  • JAMA February 10, 2015

    Figure 5: Associations of Each Class of Antihypertensives on Mortality, Cardiovascular Events, Coronary Heart Disease Events, Stroke Events, and Heart Failure Events Compared With All Other Classes of Antihypertensives

    aSystolic blood pressure (SBP) reduction is reported as a 95% CI for the mean reduction at the trial level, not a range of reduction among trials.The area of each square is proportional to the inverse variance of the estimate. Horizontal lines indicate 95% CIs of the estimate. ACE indicates angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; CCB, calcium channel blocker.
  • Effects of High vs Low Glycemic Index of Dietary Carbohydrate on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Insulin Sensitivity: The OmniCarb Randomized Clinical Trial

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    JAMA. 2014; 312(23):2531-2541. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.16658

    This randomized crossover feeding trial reports no improvements in insulin sensitivity, lipid levels, or systolic blood pressure after 5 weeks of following diets with low glycemic index vs high glycemic index of dietary carbohydrate.

  • JAMA December 17, 2014

    Figure 3: Effect of Study Diets on Main Outcomes

    The primary outcomes were systolic blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides. Diastolic blood pressure was a secondary outcome. Additional data related to these outcomes are presented in Table 3 and eTable 3 in Supplement 2. Apolipoproteins and other lipid outcomes are in eTable 4. Carb indicates carbohydrate; GI, glycemic index. To convert cholesterol to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0259; triglycerides to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0113.aFor the 5 primary outcomes on the primary diet contrast (insulin sensitivity, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure), we plot and tabulate 99% CI to achieve nominal 95% coverage.
  • JAMA August 27, 2014

    Figure 2: Blood Pressure Difference at 12 Months by Subgroup for Systolic Blood Pressure

    aThe difference in blood pressure between groups at 12 months accounts for baseline blood pressure.bIMD indicates the index of multiple deprivation. Higher values correspond to worse deprivation.
  • Effect of Self-monitoring and Medication Self-titration on Systolic Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: The TASMIN-SR Randomized Clinical Trial

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    JAMA. 2014; 312(8):799-808. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.10057

    McManus and coauthors found that patients with hypertension at risk of cardiovascular disease who were randomly assigned to self-monitor their blood pressure and self-titrate their medication reduced their systolic blood pressure more than did patients who were randomized to the usual care cohort.

  • JAMA June 4, 2014

    Figure: Unadjusted Kaplan-Meier Estimates of Mortality, and Cox Model-Derived Adjusted Mortality Rates, for Patients With an LVEF Between 30% and 35% With and Without an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD)

    Adjusted rates, hazard ratios, and P values are from Cox models that include age, sex, race, left ventricular ejection fraction, ischemic heart disease, prior atrial arrhythmia, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, hypertension, and baseline use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, calcium channel blocker, digoxin, diuretic, or statin.