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  • Trends in Care Practices, Morbidity, and Mortality of Extremely Preterm Neonates, 1993-2012

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    JAMA. 2015; 314(10):1039-1051. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.10244

    This population epidemiology study used neonatal registry data to characterize trends in maternal and neonatal care, and morbidity and mortality of extremely preterm infants between 1993 and 2012.

  • JAMA September 8, 2015

    Figure 2: Neonatal Morbidities for Infants Born at Gestational Ages 22 Through 28 Weeks

    Circles show the percent of infants born each year diagnosed with the morbidity and the smoothed curve shows the trend. Shading to indicate the 95% CI for each curve is not visible where CIs are close to values on the curve. Percentages shown in graphs are among infants of all gestational ages who survived more than 12 hours with additional restrictions as noted in the text and eTable 3 in the Supplement. Relative risks (RRs) are based on infants of all gestational ages and are shown for outcomes for which the year-gestational age interaction was not significant. When the year-gestational age interaction was significant, graphs and RRs are shown for each gestational age for late-onset sepsis, severe intracranial hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in eFigures 5-8 in the Supplement. RRs for the change per year were adjusted for study center, maternal race/ethnicity, infant gestational age, small size for gestational age, and sex. Total number of infants (mean [range] per year): 30 790 (1539 [1035-1809]) for necrotizing enterocolitis; 29 252 (1462 [980-1702]) for late-onset sepsis; 29 883 (1494 [1016-1741]) for severe intracranial hemorrhage (ICH); 28 498 (1424 [769-1744]) for periventricular leukomalacia (PVL); 24 951 (1247 [808-1509]) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) of stage 3 or greater; and 25 000 (1250 [746-1534]) for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).
  • JAMA September 8, 2015

    Figure 4: Infant Survival to Discharge Without Major Morbidity by Birth Year and Gestational Age

    Major morbidity was defined as one or more of necrotizing enterocolitis, infections (early-onset sepsis, late-onset sepsis, or meningitis), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), severe intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) of stage 3 or greater. Circles show the percent of infants who survived without major morbidity each year, the smoothed curve shows the trend, and shading indicates a 95% CI for the curve. Percentages are among infants who survived to discharge, excluding those not adequately evaluated for major morbidity. Infants born at gestational age 22 weeks are not shown because only 99 of 1550 survived to discharge and only 5 survived without major morbidity. Relative risks (RRs) for the change per year were adjusted for study center, maternal race/ethnicity, infant gestational age, small size for gestational age, and sex. Trends varied by gestational age (year-gestational age interaction, P = .01). Total number of infants [mean (range) per year]: 877 (43 [33-69]) for 23 weeks; 2706 (135 [75-183]) for 24 weeks; 4007 (200 [119-249]) for 25 weeks; 4900 (245 [155-313]) for 26 weeks; 5902 (295 [184-350]) for 27 weeks; and 6808 (340 [256-405]) for 28 weeks.
  • Association Between Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity and Nonvisual Disabilities at Age 5 Years

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    JAMA. 2014; 311(5):523-525. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.282153
  • Cryotherapy in Infants With Retinopathy of Prematurity

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    JAMA. 1990; 263(15):2052-2052. doi: 10.1001/jama.1990.03440150056025
  • Cryotherapy in Infants With Retinopathy of Prematurity-Reply

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    JAMA. 1990; 263(15):2052-2052. doi: 10.1001/jama.1990.03440150056026
  • Cryotherapy in Infants With Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Decision Model for Treating One or Both Eyes

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    JAMA. 1989; 261(12):1751-1756. doi: 10.1001/jama.1989.03420120089032
  • Survival Without Disability to Age 5 Years After Neonatal Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity

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    JAMA. 2012; 307(3):275-282. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.2024
  • Impact of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, Brain Injury, and Severe Retinopathy on the Outcome of Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants at 18 Months: Results From the Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms

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    JAMA. 2003; 289(9):1124-1129. doi: 10.1001/jama.289.9.1124
  • Clinical Outcomes Following Institution of Universal Leukoreduction of Blood Transfusions for Premature Infants

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    JAMA. 2003; 289(15):1950-1956. doi: 10.1001/jama.289.15.1950
  • Effect of Fluconazole Prophylaxis on Candidiasis and Mortality in Premature Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    JAMA. 2014; 311(17):1742-1749. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.2624

    Benjamin and colleagues evaluate the safety and effect of fluconazole prophylaxis in reducing candidiasis and mortality in a randomized blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 361 premature US infants.

  • Effect of Fresh Red Blood Cell Transfusions on Clinical Outcomes in Premature, Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants: The ARIPI Randomized Trial

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    JAMA. 2012; 308(14):1443-1451. doi: 10.1001/2012.jama.11953
    Fergusson and coauthors conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 377 premature, very low-birth-weight infants admitted to Canadian neonatal ICUs to determine if transfusion with red blood cells stored for 7 days or less decreased rates of major nosocomial infection and organ dysfunction.
  • Effects of Targeting Higher vs Lower Arterial Oxygen Saturations on Death or Disability in Extremely Preterm Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    JAMA. 2013; 309(20):2111-2120. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.5555
    To compare the effects of targeting lower or higher arterial oxygen saturations on the rate of death or disability in extremely preterm infants, Schmidt and coauthors conducted a multinational randomized trial in 1201 infants. In an Editorial, Bancalari and Claure discuss the translation of these results into clinical practice.
  • Bovine Lactoferrin Supplementation for Prevention of Late-Onset Sepsis in Very Low-Birth-Weight Neonates: A Randomized Trial

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    JAMA. 2009; 302(13):1421-1428. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.1403
  • One-Year Survival of Extremely Preterm Infants After Active Perinatal Care in Sweden

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    JAMA. 2009; 301(21):2225-2233. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.771
  • Contribution of Impaired Early-Stage Visual Processing to Working Memory Dysfunction in Adolescents With Schizophrenia: A Study With Event-Related Potentials and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    JAMA. 2008; 299(1):15-17. doi: JAS0102
  • The State of US Health, 1990-2010: Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors

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    JAMA. 2013; 310(6):591-606. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.13805

    The US Burden of Disease Collaborators used a systematic analysis of descriptive epidemiology of diseases and injuries, their sequelae, and risk factors or clusters of risk factors from 1990 to 2010 to describe the health status of the United States. In an editorial, Fineberg discusses the health of the US population.

  • Short-term Outcomes of Infants Enrolled in Randomized Clinical Trials vs Those Eligible but Not Enrolled

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    JAMA. 2015; 313(23):2377-2379. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.5734

    This retrospective analysis of infants at National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network sites did not find differences in mortality or neonatal morbidity between trial participants and nonparticipants.

  • Individualized Developmental Care for the Very Low-Birth-Weight Preterm Infant: Medical and Neurofunctional Effects

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    JAMA. 1994; 272(11):853-858. doi: 10.1001/jama.1994.03520110033025