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  • Antiretroviral Treatment of Adult HIV Infection: 2014 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society–USA Panel

    Abstract Full Text
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    JAMA. 2014; 312(4):410-425. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.8722

    Günthard and coauthors report the 2014 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society–USA Panel on antiretroviral treatment of adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

  • JAMA July 23, 2014

    Figure 2: Rates of 12-Week Sustained Virologic Response by Subgroup in Treatment-Naive Patients With Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Receiving 24 Weeks of Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin

    The position of the solid squares indicates the rate of virologic response 12 weeks after the end of treatment for each subgroup; the horizontal lines indicate 95% confidence intervals. The vertical line represents the overall rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) for all patients with genotype 1. Body mass index is calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. ARV indicates antiretroviral therapy; NNRTI, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; PI, protease inhibitor; SVR12, sustained virological response for 12 weeks; and ULN, upper limit of normal.
  • JAMA May 1, 2013

    Figure 1: Reasons for Exclusion of Clinic Patients From the Study Cohort

    aThe patients who initiated a protease inhibitor–based treatment were enrolled in a clinical trial. A few patients began taking 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors before highly active antiretroviral therapy was available.bIncluded in death and loss to follow-up counted as virological failure subanalysis.
  • Association of Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Lopinavir-Ritonavir and Adrenal Dysfunction Among Uninfected Infants of HIV-Infected Mothers

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    JAMA. 2011; 306(1):70-78. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.915
  • JAMA July 6, 2011

    Figure 1: 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Levels in Term Newborns Collected at Birth

    Results represent 42 children treated postnatally with lopinavir-ritonavir and 93 controls. All children were born at term, and tests were performed within 2 to 6 days of life. Solid circles indicate mothers treated with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor during pregnancy (n = 35 in treatment group and 58 in control group). Open circles indicate no ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor during pregnancy (n = 7 in treatment group and 35 in control group). Horizontal bar indicates the median value; 17OHP, 17-hydroxyprogesterone.
  • JAMA July 6, 2011

    Figure 2: Plasma Dehydroepiandrosterone- Sulfate Concentrations During the First Week of Life in Term Newborns

    Results represent 18 term children treated postnatally with lopinavir-ritonavir and 17 controls. Solid circles indicate mothers treated with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor during pregnancy (n = 16 in treatment group and n = 13 in control group). Open circles indicate no ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor during pregnancy (n = 2 in treatment group and n = 4 in control group). Horizontal bar indicates the median value; DHEA-S, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate.
  • Reuse of Nevirapine in Exposed HIV-Infected Children After Protease Inhibitor–Based Viral Suppression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    JAMA. 2010; 304(10):1082-1090. doi: 10.1001/jama.2010.1278
  • JAMA August 16, 2006

    Figure 3: Percentage of Patients With Abnormal Serum Lipid Levels as a Function of Antiretroviral Therapy Regimens

    The percentage of patients with elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides, or decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is shown by the class of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) they were receiving: no ARVs, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) therapy without a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or protease inhibitor (PI), NNRTI-based therapy, or PI-based therapy. Data are from the Data Collection of Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (DAD) Study Group. HAART indicates highly active antiretroviral therapy. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.
  • Metabolic and Skeletal Complications of HIV Infection: The Price of Success

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2006; 296(7):844-854. doi: 10.1001/jama.296.7.844
  • JAMA May 11, 2005

    Figure 2: Pediatric Use of NRTIs, NNRTIs, and PIs, 1987-2003

    NRTI indicates nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NNRTI, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; PI, protease inhibitor.
  • JAMA May 11, 2005

    Figure 3: Trends in ART Use by Birth Cohort

    ART indicates antiretroviral therapy; HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; NRTI, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; PI, protease inhibitor.
  • JAMA May 11, 2005

    Figure 1: ART Regimen Use in Children in PATG 219C, 1987-2003

    ART indicates antiretroviral therapy; HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; NRTI, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NNRTI, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; PATG, Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group; PI, protease inhibitor.
  • JAMA May 11, 2005

    Figure: Type of Antiretroviral Therapy in Relation to Progression Among HIV-Infected Children in the First 3 Years of Life

    Includes the children treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 1 month before the onset of category C conditions or age 3 years, whichever occurred first. Ages are presented as medians in months, with interquartile ranges indicated in parentheses. Of the 33 children receiving the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) 076 regimen, the 6 children who received only PACTG 076 and no subsequent ART would be in the “no ART” group, and the 6 children who received PACTG 076 and then began ART within 1 to 2 weeks after age 6 weeks were considered to have started mono ART at birth (then categorized based on their subsequent therapy). The 21 children who completed PACTG 076 at age 6 weeks and did not start subsequent therapy until at least 2 weeks after completion were considered to be in the ART group based on their subsequent treatment regimen (see “Methods” section). Triple ART always included a protease inhibitor or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.
  • JAMA February 16, 2005

    Figure 2: Lack of New Genotypic Resistance Mutations in Plasma Virus During or Immediately After Blips

    At all points other than those at which the plasma HIV-1 RNA level was ≥50 copies/mL, the viral load was undetectable. Up to 7 independent clones were obtained at each time point. Note that no new mutations conferring drug resistance appeared during the blips. All mutations detected during or within 30 days after blips were present at baseline (B) or were seen in plasma samples taken prior to the blips. Baseline mutations were identified in either plasma or resting CD4 cell reservoir samples (peripheral blood). The resting cell reservoir was sampled only at baseline. “Prior ART exposure” refers to other antiretroviral drugs the patient has taken that are not part of the current regimen. ABC indicates abacavir; ADF, adefovir; APV, amprenavir; ART, antiretroviral therapy; AZT, zidovudine; ddC, zalcitabine; ddI, didanosine; d4T, stavudine; EFV, efavirenz; HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; IDV, indinavir; LPV, lopinavir; NFV, nelfinavir; NNRTI, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NRTI, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NVP, nevirapine; PI, protease inhibitor; RTV, ritonavir; SQV, saquinavir; TDF, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; 3TC, lamivudine; WT, wild type.
  • Treatment for Adult HIV Infection: 2004 Recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA Panel

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    JAMA. 2004; 292(2):251-265. doi: 10.1001/jama.292.2.251
  • Updated Guidelines for the Use of Rifamycins for the Treatment of Tuberculosis Among HIV-Infected Patients Taking Protease Inhibitors or Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

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    JAMA. 2004; 291(8):938-938. doi: 10.1001/jama.291.8.938
  • Old Drugs for a New Bug

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    JAMA. 2003; 290(13):1695-1696. doi: 10.1001/jama.290.13.1695
  • Dual vs Single Protease Inhibitor Therapy Following Antiretroviral Treatment Failure: A Randomized Trial

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    JAMA. 2002; 288(2):169-180. doi: 10.1001/jama.288.2.169
  • JAMA July 10, 2002

    Figure 2: Viral Load and CD4 Cell Count Change From Baseline in Dual Protease Inhibitor and Placebo Arms

    Dual protease inhibitor arms received saquinavir, indinavir, and nelfinavir. All patients also received amprenavir, abacavir, efavirenz, and adefovir dipivoxil.
  • JAMA July 10, 2002

    Figure 1: Genotypic and Phenotypic Resistance by Class of Antiretroviral Drugs by Calendar Year

    All treated individuals received 3 or more antiretroviral agents. PI indicates protease inhibitor; NRTI, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NNRTI, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.