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  • JAMA September 26, 2017

    Figure 1: Flow of Participants Enrolled in the Continuous Oxygen, Nocturnal Oxygen, and Control Groups

    aThe number of patients screened for eligibility was not available.bSee eTable 2 in Supplement 3 for adherence data.
  • JAMA September 26, 2017

    Figure 3: Subgroup Analyses for an Improved Outcome Assessed by Modified Rankin Scale Score Comparing Oxygen vs Control at 90 Days

    The x-axis depicts the common odds ratio (OR) for a better outcome over all 7 levels of the modified Rankin Scale score (mRS), derived from ordinal logistic regression. ORs greater than 1 indicate that a good outcome (low mRS) is more likely with oxygen than with control (reference category). The size of the markers reflects the total sample size in each subgroup, with larger markers indicating more precise estimates. The subgroup thresholds for oxygen concentration at randomization were revised from the prespecified thresholds because the analysis did not converge using the prespecified values. SSV indicates Six Simple Variable risk score; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale.
  • JAMA September 26, 2017

    Figure 2: Main Outcome Assessed by Modified Rankin Scale Score at 90-Day Follow-up

    From the ordinal regression analysis, the unadjusted odds ratio for a better outcome (lower modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score) was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.05; P = .47) for combined oxygen vs control, and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.13; P = .61) for continuous oxygen vs nightly oxygen (mRS score range, 0 to 6 [0, no symptoms; 1, few symptoms but able to carry out all previous activities and duties; 2, unable to carry out all previous activities but able to look after own affairs without assistance; 3, needs some help with looking after own affairs but able to walk without assistance; 4, unable to walk without assistance and unable to attend to own bodily needs without assistance but does not need constant care and attention; 5, major symptoms such as bedridden and incontinent and needs constant attention day and night; 6, death]).
  • JAMA April 11, 2017

    Figure 1: Flow of Study Patients With Hypoxemia After Cardiac Surgery

    BMI indicates body mass index, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; Pao2, partial pressure of arterial blood oxygen; Fio2, fraction of inspired oxygen.
  • JAMA October 18, 2016

    Figure 1: Patient Flow Diagram of the Oxygen-ICU Trial

    ICU indicates intensive care unit.
  • JAMA October 18, 2016

    Figure 2: Probability of Survival From Study Inclusion (Day 0) Through Day 60 for Patients in the Conservative and Conventional Oxygen Strategy Groups

    Patients discharged alive from the hospital were considered to have survived, and their median follow-up was 22 days for the conservative group (interquartile range, 13-37) and 24 days for the conventional group (interquartile range, 15-35).
  • Pathways for Oxygen Regulation and Homeostasis: The 2016 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2016; 316(12):1252-1253. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.12386

    In this Viewpoint, 2016 Lasker Award winners William Kaelin, Peter Ratcliffe, and Gregg Semenza discuss their discovery of pathways by which humans and other multicellular organisms sense and respond to changes in oxygen availability.

  • High-Flow Nasal Oxygen or Noninvasive Ventilation for Postextubation Hypoxemia: Flow vs Pressure?

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2016; 315(13):1340-1342. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.2709
  • JAMA October 27, 2015

    Figure 3: Odds Ratio for 28-Day Mortality in the Early Noninvasive Ventilation Group, Compared With the Oxygen Group, Overall and in Predefined Subgroups

    Underlying conditions were those mentioned by investigators at randomization. These may have been changed after further validation and thus differ from those in Table 1, which includes the final underlying immunosuppressive conditions . Sizes of data markers correspond to the relative size of each subgroup. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals. aFrom the Gray test.bDichotomization at 9 L/min was preplanned and represents a subgroup from stratification.
  • Effect of Noninvasive Ventilation vs Oxygen Therapy on Mortality Among Immunocompromised Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Abstract Full Text
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    JAMA. 2015; 314(16):1711-1719. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.12402

    This randomized trial compares the effects of noninvasive ventilation vs oxygen alone on 28-day mortality among immunocompromised patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure.

  • JAMA October 27, 2015

    Figure 4: Cumulative Incidence of Intubation Throughout the 28 Days

    Cumulative incidence of intubation throughout the 28 days after randomization in immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure receiving either early noninvasive ventilation or oxygen only.
  • JAMA October 27, 2015

    Figure 2: Probability of Survival at Day 28

    Probability of survival and subgroup analyses of the risk of day-28 mortality Kaplan-Meier estimates of the probability of day-28 mortality in immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure receiving either early noninvasive ventilation or oxygen only. Statistical test used the log-rank test.
  • JAMA June 16, 2015

    Figure 2: Postoperative Patients Without Treatment Failure After Extubation

    Percentages of patients in whom treatment with either bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) or high-flow nasal oxygen did not fail after postoperative extubation. Treatment failure occurred in 91 of 416 patients with BiPAP (21.9%) and 87 of 414 patients with high-flow nasal oxygen therapy (21.0%) (absolute difference, 0.86%). Treatment failure was defined as reintubation for mechanical ventilation, switch to the other study treatment, or premature study treatment discontinuation (at the request of the patient or for medical reasons such as gastric distention).
  • JAMA November 5, 2014

    Figure: Banked Blood Cells Lose Functionality Over Time

    New research shows that stored red blood cells lose their ability to transport oxygen over time.
  • Effect of Oximetry on Hospitalization in Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Abstract Full Text
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    JAMA. 2014; 312(7):712-718. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.8637
  • Effects of Targeting Higher vs Lower Arterial Oxygen Saturations on Death or Disability in Extremely Preterm Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Abstract Full Text
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    JAMA. 2013; 309(20):2111-2120. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.5555
    To compare the effects of targeting lower or higher arterial oxygen saturations on the rate of death or disability in extremely preterm infants, Schmidt and coauthors conducted a multinational randomized trial in 1201 infants. In an Editorial, Bancalari and Claure discuss the translation of these results into clinical practice.
  • JAMA May 22, 2013

    Figure 1: Canadian Oxygen Trial Study Flow Diagram

    Infants could be excluded for more than 1 reason. Eligible infants had to be randomized within the first 24 hours of life. “Not approached” included situations in which, within this time limit, families could not be convened to discuss consent or were judged to be too stressed to be approached for consent, or no skilled research staff were available to elicit informed consent.
  • JAMA May 22, 2013

    Figure 2: Study Participants' True Median Arterial Oxygen Saturations in the Treatment Groups

    The distribution of the individual study participants' true median arterial oxygen saturation is plotted for each treatment group according to the exact times spent receiving supplemental oxygen on days 1 through 3 (top left) and based on all study days with more than 12 hours of supplemental oxygen per day (bottom left). The cumulative percentages of infants with true median arterial oxygen saturations less than or equal to a specified value are plotted for each treatment group in the 2 right panels. The individual participants' median saturations in the left panels are grouped in 1% intervals and the respective percentages are plotted at the midpoint of the 1% interval (eg, the interval 90.00%-90.99% is plotted at 90.50%). In the right panels, cumulative percentages of infants are plotted at their exact individual median saturation values. A total of 316 infants in the 85%-89% target group and 365 infants in the 91%-95% target group contributed adequate saturation data to the analysis of median saturations on days 1 through 3, whereas 533 and 542 infants, respectively, contributed adequate saturation data on all days with more than 12 hours of supplemental oxygen.
  • JAMA March 13, 2013

    Figure: Flow Diagram of Participant Recruitment and Randomization

    ODI indicates oxygen desaturation index; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure. aThe total number of patients initially screened by primary care physicians for eligibility is unknown. bPrimary analysis was conducted in an intention-to-treat manner and missing values were replaced by multiple imputation.