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  • JAMA February 10, 2015

    Figure: Images of Biocompatible Electronic Devices

    A, Inflated balloon catheter equipped with arrays of sensors for pressure, flow, and contact along with actuators for ablation therapy and light-emitting diodes for optical characterization. B, Three-dimensional membrane wrapped around the entire surface of the heart for cardiac electrotherapy. C, Actively multiplexed sheet of electronics laminated onto the surface of the brain for high-resolution electrocorticography. D, Wireless electronics mounted on the skin for continuous, multimodal monitoring of physiological status. E, Injectable optoelectronic system threaded through the eye of a sewing needle and wrapped around its shaft to highlight the small dimensions and flexible mechanics. F, Bioresorbable electronic circuit, partially dissolving in a drop of water. All of the constituent materials dissolve at controlled rates into harmless end products when exposed to biofluids.
  • The Smiths : W. Blair Bruce

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2014; 312(3):214-215. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.279615
  • JAMA May 23, 2012

    Figure: Representative Damage to the Polymers on the Adluminal Surface of Each Drug-Eluting Stent Following Balloon Expansion

    Each stent shown was 3.0 mm in diameter and 16 to 18 mm in length. The adluminal and abluminal polymer surface of the drug-eluting stents were systematically imaged following balloon expansion using optical microscopy (Olympus BX 60; Olympus America Inc). Magnification was 50 to 500 × . Each polymer surface was imaged at 16 locations (8 adluminal, 8 abluminal), spanning the length of the drug-eluting stents. The locations were predefined in a spiral configuration. For quantitative measurements, the magnification was 100 × . Values in each bin interval are greater than the lower limit of the interval and less than or equal to the upper limit.
  • Optical Pacemaker

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2010; 304(13):1432-1432. doi: 10.1001/jama.2010.1370
  • JAMA October 28, 2009

    Figure 2: Different IgG Isotypes in B6SJLF1/J Mice After Peptide and DNA Immunization With Human β-Amyloid1-42

    From a blood sample taken after 4 vaccinations, the ratio of the optical density values of IgG1 to IgG2a was calculated. Mice immunized with DNA (D1-D8) showed a predominant IgG1 response indicating a T helper 2 cell (TH2) response (mean [SD] IgG1/IgG2a ratio, 9.63 [1.18]). Mice immunized with peptide (P1-P8) showed both isotypes, IgG1 and IgG2a, indicating a mixed TH2/TH1 response (mean [SD] IgG1/IgG2a ratio, 1.23 [0.14]). P < .001 for comparison between the groups. Square data markers indicate group means; error bars indicate SD.
  • Comparison of β-Blockers, Amiodarone Plus β-Blockers, or Sotalol for Prevention of Shocks From Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators: The OPTIC Study: A Randomized Trial

    Abstract Full Text
    free access
    JAMA. 2006; 295(2):165-171. doi: 10.1001/jama.295.2.165
  • JAMA January 11, 2006

    Figure 1: Flow of Patients in the OPTIC Trial

    OPTIC indicates Optimal Pharmacological Therapy in Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients.
  • JAMA July 10, 2002

    Figure 4: Viral Load, CD4 Cell Count, and Genotypic Drug Resistance in Drug-Naive Recently Infected Individuals

    The whiskers represent the entire range, the boxes represent the interquartile range (25% to 75%), and the black horizontal lines within the boxes represent the median values. The median viral load in individuals with genotypic drug resistance was not significantly lower than that of individuals with wild-type HIV-1 (P = .71). The CD4 cell counts were higher in individuals with drug-selected variants (P = .03), even after duration of infection, as indicated by the less-sensitive enzyme immunoassay optical density, was controlled.
  • Future Bright for Light as Dermatologic Tool

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2002; 287(14):1788-1792. doi: 10.1001/jama.287.14.1788-JMN0410-2-1
  • JAMA April 3, 2002

    Figure: Mean Levels of IgA1 Protease Activity Detected in Symptomatic and Carriage Isolates of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Comparison of the levels of IgA1 protease activity (relative IGAP activity) detected in symptomatic and carriage isolates of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae assayed on either monoclonal IgA1 (left) or polyclonal secretory IgA (sIgA; right) substrates as described in the "Methods" section. The boxes represent interquartile range (25%-75%); the solid horizontal line within the boxes, median; dashed line within the boxes, mean; and error bars, 10% to 90%. The differences between the protease levels of the symptomatic vs the carriage isolates is significant at the P<.001 level. Symptomatic isolates are defined as those obtained from symptomatic patients; carriage isolates were from asymptomatic carriers. OD indicates optical density (of culture) at 550 nm.
  • JAMA February 7, 2001

    Figure 3: Current and Future Clinical Programs for Prostate Cancer Imaging and Treatment

    Current clinical prostate cancer assessment and treatment programs (A, B, and C) rely on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to define targets and plan therapeutic interventions. A combination of imaging techniques including 3-dimensional visualization (D) and combined MRI and optical imaging (F) will increase the precision of disease modeling and treatment planning and enhance image-guided therapy. Molecular and optical imaging modes, being investigated in animal models such as mice (E; reproduced with permission from Tung et al), may prove to be valuable tools when integrated into future prostate cancer treatment delivery systems. CT indicates computed tomography.
  • JAMA July 1, 1998

    Figure: New Testing Strategy to Detect Early HIV-1 Infection for Use in Incidence Estimates and for Clinical and Prevention Purposes

    Figure 3.—Analyses of 3A11-LS results from specimens obtained after seroconversion on 3A11 assay. Left, From mathematical model (see "Methods"), distribution of time from seroconversion on 3A11 assay to seroconversion on 3A11-LS assay for 3 cutoff values (optical density [OD]=0.50, 0.75, and 1.00) for the 3A11-LS assay. Right, Results of 3A11-LS testing (OD cutoff=0.75) during selected periods after estimated day of seroconversion on 3A11 assay. Since persons provided multiple blood specimens in a period, height of each bar represents average percentage of each person's specimens with 3A11-LS nonreactive results obtained in the period. In most cases, multiple specimens provided by a subject during a period had the same test results; however, in the 30- to 59-day period, 1 person provided 3 3A11-LS nonreactive specimens followed by a 3A11-LS reactive specimen, and in the greater than 150-day period, 3 persons each provided a specimen with 3A11-LS nonreactive results followed by multiple blood specimens with 3A11-LS reactive results.
  • Q uestions and A nswers

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 1961; 176(6):559-564. doi: 10.1001/jama.1961.03040190081047
  • JAMA May 23, 2017

    Figure 3: Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Central Subfield Thickness at Baseline and Monthly Through Month 6

    The center horizontal line of each box indicates the median; circle, mean; and top and bottom borders of each box, 75th and 25th percentiles, respectively. The whiskers extend to the minimum observation above the lower fence and maximum observation below the upper fence, which are defined as 1.5 times the interquartile range below the 25th percentile and above the 75th percentile, respectively. The outliers (squares) mark any observation below the lower fence or above the upper fence.
  • JAMA May 23, 2017

    Figure 4: Color Fundus Photograph and Optical Coherence Tomogram of the Left Eye at Baseline and Month 6 in a Representative SCORE2 Participant With a Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    At baseline, the color fundus photograph of the central 30° of the retina showed extensive retinal hemorrhages and dilated retinal veins. The optic nerve was not visible because of retinal edema and blood. Retinal edema was present throughout the retina and is best seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT), which provides a cross-sectional image of the retina. The OCT scan shown here was taken through the center of the retina. The participant’s visual acuity was 20/400 at baseline. At month 6, the color fundus photograph of the retina in the same participant showed nearly complete resolution of intraretinal blood after receiving monthly injections of aflibercept for 6 months. The optic nerve was visible and appeared normal. The OCT scan showed that retinal edema resolved and the fovea returned to its normal contour. At month 6, the participant’s visual acuity improved to 20/40.
  • JAMA May 14, 2014

    Figure 4: Imaging Assessment of the Optic Nerve and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    A, The arrowheads point to a retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect. B, Areas of thicker RNFL appear in yellow and red. Arrowheads point to the RNFL defect. A deviation map compares the RNFL thickness values with a normative database and highlights the defect. E, Arrowheads point to a visual field defect.
  • JAMA May 14, 2014

    Figure 2: Schematic Illustration of Normal Anatomy and Neurodegenerative Changes Associated With Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy

    A, The optic disc is composed of neural, vascular, and connective tissues. The convergence of the axons of retinal ganglion (RG) cells at the optic disc creates the neuroretinal rim; the rim surrounds the cup, a central shallow depression in the optic disc. Retinal ganglion cell axons exit the eye through the lamina cribrosa (LC), forming the optic nerve, and travel to the left and right lateral geniculate nucleus, the thalamic relay nuclei for vision.B, Glaucomatous optic neuropathy involves damage and remodeling of the optic disc tissues and LC that lead to vision loss. With elevated intraocular pressure, the LC is posteriorly displaced and thinned, leading to deepening of the cup and narrowing of the rim. Distortions within the LC may initiate or contribute to the blockade of axonal transport of neurotrophic factors within the RG cell axons followed by apoptotic degeneration of the RG cells. Strain placed on this region also causes molecular and functional changes to the resident cell population in the optic nerve (eg, astrocytes, microglia), remodeling of the extracellular matrix, alterations of the microcirculation and to shrinkage and atrophy of target relay neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus.
  • JAMA May 14, 2014

    Figure 3: Normal, Glaucomatous, and Severe Glaucomatous Optic Nerve Heads and Visual Field Test Results

    A, The pink area of neural tissue forms the neuroretinal rim, whereas the central empty space corresponds to the cup. B, Glaucomatous optic nerve showing loss of superior neural retinal rim (thinning) and excavation with enlargement of the cup. The arrowheads point to an associated retinal nerve fiber layer defect, which appears as a wedge-shaped dark area emanating from the optic nerve head. The superior neural losses correspond to the inferior defect (black scotoma) seen on the visual field. There is also a small retinal nerve fiber layer defect inferiorly, but the corresponding hemifield of the visual field remains within normal limits. C, More extensive neural tissue loss from glaucoma with severe neuroretinal rim loss, excavation, and enlargement of the cup. There is severe loss of visual field both in the superior as well as in the inferior hemifield.
  • JAMA May 14, 2014

    Figure 5: Gonioscopic Imaging and Optical Coherence Tomographic Imaging of Open-Angle and Closed-Angle

    A lens with a prism is placed on the eye during gonioscopy, a process during which the examiner is able to examine the angle configuration and assess for the presence of angle closure. A, The arrowhead points to the lack of contact between the iris and angle. Image on the right shows the anterior segment captured by optical coherence tomography. The arrowheads point to visible trabecular meshwork. B, The angle is closed with the trabecular meshwork not visible due to apposition of the iris to the angle. In the right image, the arrowheads indicate apposition of the iris to the angle wall; the anterior chamber is shallow and the iris has a slightly convex configuration. This is more noticeable in the region of the iris on the right.