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  • JAMA August 8, 2017

    Figure 3: Forest Plot of the Absolute Risk Difference in the Primary End Point According to Predefined Subgroups

    CABG indicates coronary artery bypass graft; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction. The size of the data markers reflects the precision of the estimation. The error bars indicate 95% CIs. P values for subgroup comparisons correspond to test for interaction. aTwo patients in the placebo group who refused participation after randomization could not be assessed for the primary end point and were excluded from the intention-to-treat analysis.
  • Effect of Oral Iron Repletion on Exercise Capacity in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction and Iron Deficiency: The IRONOUT HF Randomized Clinical Trial

    Abstract Full Text
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    JAMA. 2017; 317(19):1958-1966. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.5427

    This randomized clinical trial investigates the efficacy of oral iron supplementation for improvement of exercise capacity in adult patients with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.

  • JAMA April 11, 2017

    Figure 1: Flow of Study Patients With Hypoxemia After Cardiac Surgery

    BMI indicates body mass index, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; Pao2, partial pressure of arterial blood oxygen; Fio2, fraction of inspired oxygen.
  • JAMA April 4, 2017

    Figure 1: Flow of Participants Through the Study

    ICD indicates implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction.aTwo patients had prior history of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT). One had NSVT on day 1 after enrollment before starting the exercise program and was referred for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation; the other had NSVT unrelated to exercise and already had an ICD. One patient with no prior history of NSVT had an episode of NSVT on day 13 of the protocol, 1 hour after exercising, and was referred for ICD implantation.
  • JAMA December 13, 2016

    Figure 1: Flow of Patients Through the GLAGOV Randomized Clinical Trial

    aPatients could be excluded for more than 1 reason; therefore, the sum of the criteria may be greater than the number of patients. CETP indicates cholesterylester transfer protein; GLAGOV, Global Assessment of Plaque Regression With a PCSK9 Antibody as Measured by Intravascular Ultrasound; IVUS, intravascular ultrasonography; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.bLDL-C level 80 mg/dL (2.07 mmol/L) or greater, with or without risk factors; less than 60 mg/dL (1.55 mmol/L); or 60 mg/dL or greater to less than 80 mg/dL.cClinically significant heart disease (154), hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism (38), type 1 diabetes (27), history of malignancy (16), fasting triglyceride level greater than 400 mg/dL (4.52 mmol/L) (15), active liver disease or hepatic dysfunction (11), uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmia (4), creatine kinase level greater than 3 times upper limit of normal (2), history of hereditary muscular disorders (2), known active infection or systemic dysfunctions (2), New York Heart Association III or IV heart failure or left ventricular ejection fraction less than 30% (2), severe renal dysfunction (1), uncontrolled hypertension (1).
  • Effects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Abstract Full Text
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    JAMA. 2016; 316(5):500-508. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.10260

    This randomized clinical trial compares the effects of liraglutide vs placebo on time to death and rehospitalization and on time-averaged proportional change in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level among patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 40% or lower.

  • JAMA April 26, 2016

    Figure 2: Elements of Clinical Prediction Score and Distribution of Score Among Randomized DAPT Study Patients (Derivation Cohort, 11 648 Patients)

    CHF indicates congestive heart failure; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; MI, myocardial infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention. Variables reflect characteristics at the time of the index procedure. Cigarette smoking was defined as smoking within 1 year prior to index procedure.
  • JAMA December 1, 2015

    Figure 1: Flow of Patients Through the Trial

    NT-proBNP indicates N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; BP, blood pressure; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.aOne patient in the 2.5-mg vericiguat group was too old according to local regulation (initial age limit <75 y, later suspended).bMajor reasons for exclusion. Each patient may have >1 reason for exclusion.
  • JAMA March 10, 2015

    Figure 2: Multivariate Risk-Adjusted Outcome of Mortality

    COPD indicates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; STS-PROM, Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality.
  • JAMA March 10, 2015

    Figure 3: Multivariate Risk-Adjusted Outcomes of Stroke and Heart Failure

    COPD indicates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; STS-PROM, Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality.
  • JAMA November 19, 2014

    Figure 2: Interactions and Hazard Ratios for All-Cause Mortality for Patients Treated vs Not Treated With β-Blockers in Prespecified Subgroups in the Matched Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Cohort

    β-Blocker use analyzed at baseline without consideration of potential crossover during follow-up. The P value is for the interaction between β-blocker and the variable on the y-axis. Squares represent the hazard ratios and lines represent the 95% confidence intervals, for β-blocker yes vs no in the subgroup on the y-axis. Continuous variables were dichotomized at clinically relevant cut-offs. NYHA indicates, New York Heart Association; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; and RAS, renin-angiotensin system.
  • Association Between Prophylactic Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators and Survival in Patients With Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Between 30% and 35%

    Abstract Full Text
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    JAMA. 2014; 311(21):2209-2215. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.5310
  • JAMA June 4, 2014

    Figure: Unadjusted Kaplan-Meier Estimates of Mortality, and Cox Model-Derived Adjusted Mortality Rates, for Patients With an LVEF Between 30% and 35% With and Without an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD)

    Adjusted rates, hazard ratios, and P values are from Cox models that include age, sex, race, left ventricular ejection fraction, ischemic heart disease, prior atrial arrhythmia, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, hypertension, and baseline use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, calcium channel blocker, digoxin, diuretic, or statin.
  • JAMA April 16, 2014

    Figure 2: Estimated Effect of Metformin Compared With Placebo on Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) According to Prespecified Subgroups

    Estimation of the effect of metformin compared with placebo on LVEF according to prespecified subgroups. The estimated LVEF for the effect of metformin in the prespecified subgroups, as well as the absolute difference in LVEF for the effect of metformin per prespecified subgroup compared with the LVEF in the placebo group is displayed. BMI indicates body mass index; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; MI, myocardial infarction; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; TIMI, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction.
  • Effect of Metformin on Left Ventricular Function After Acute Myocardial Infarction in Patients Without Diabetes: The GIPS-III Randomized Clinical Trial

    Abstract Full Text
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    JAMA. 2014; 311(15):1526-1535. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.3315

    Lexis and coauthors conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 380 Dutch patients to evaluate the effect of metformin treatment on preservation of left ventricular function in patients without diabetes presenting with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

  • JAMA April 16, 2014

    Figure 1: Flow of Patients Through the Glycometabolic Intervention as Adjunct to Primary Coronary Intervention in the ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (GIPS-III) Trial

    Patients could be excluded for more than 1 reason; the primary reason for exclusion in each case is shown. CABG indicates coronary artery bypass graft; ICD, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; STEMI, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; TIMI, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.
  • JAMA February 5, 2014

    Figure 3: Relationship of Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence With Percent Fibrosis

    Adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, congestive heart failure, mitral valve disease, diabetes, atrial fibrillation type (paroxysmal or persistent), left atrial volume, left ventricular ejection fraction, and participating center (model 5) based on a cubic spline analysis with follow-up censored at day 325 after the blanking period. The strength of the association was greater at lower levels of fibrosis than at higher levels (P = .03 for test of nonlinearity). Blue dashed lines indicate 95% CI.
  • Effect of Escitalopram on Mental Stress–Induced Myocardial Ischemia: Results of the REMIT Trial

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    JAMA. 2013; 309(20):2139-2149. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.5566
    To examine the effects of escitalopram vs placebo on mental stress–induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) and other psychological stress–related biophysiological and emotional parameters, Jiang and coauthors randomly assigned 127 patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease and MSIMI to receive escitalopram or placebo for 6 weeks.
  • JAMA May 22, 2013

    Figure: Study Flow for REMIT Trial

    LVEF indicates left ventricular ejection fraction; MSIMI, mental stress−induced myocardial ischemia; REMIT, Responses of Mental Stress Induced Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment. aLack of interest (n = 529); living too far away (n = 75); lack of approval of primary care clinician or study principal investigator because of medical comorbid conditions (n = 457); other (incorrect contact information, use of coumadin) (n = 127); awaiting telephone screening (n = 239); currently taking antidepressants that could not be discontinued (n = 91); would be contacted later because of recent procedures or patient preference (n = 127); awaiting approval of primary care clinicians (n = 322); attempted but failed to contact (eg, left message, no answer, or both) (n = 327). bInitial exclusion criterion that was eliminated rapidly via institutional review board approval.
  • JAMA April 17, 2013

    Figure 2: Left Ventricular Function Assessment: Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    BMC indicates bone marrow–derived mononuclear cell; LV, left ventricular; LVEF, LV ejection fraction; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging. A, Absolute LVEF at baseline and at 4 months for each individual patient. P values obtained using paired t tests. B, Prespecified subgroup analysis of patients with baseline LVEF of 40% or less. Data markers indicate means; error bars, 95% CIs; horizontal lines, individual data. P for trend (from analysis of variance) is shown for the absolute change in LVEF.