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  • JAMA May 24, 2016

    Figure 2: Multiple-Adjusted Hazard Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals of Cardiovascular Diseases Associated With Calibrated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion

    Hazard ratios were adjusted for age, sex, race, clinic site, education, waist circumference, lean body mass index, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, history of cardiovascular disease, antidiabetic medications, lipid-lowering medications, diuretics, renin-angiotensin system blocking agents, other antihypertensive medications, urinary creatinine excretion, and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate.
  • JAMA June 4, 2014

    Figure: Unadjusted Kaplan-Meier Estimates of Mortality, and Cox Model-Derived Adjusted Mortality Rates, for Patients With an LVEF Between 30% and 35% With and Without an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD)

    Adjusted rates, hazard ratios, and P values are from Cox models that include age, sex, race, left ventricular ejection fraction, ischemic heart disease, prior atrial arrhythmia, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, hypertension, and baseline use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, calcium channel blocker, digoxin, diuretic, or statin.
  • Is Big Data the New Frontier for Academic-Industry Collaboration?

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2014; 311(21):2171-2172. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.1845
  • 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Report From the Panel Members Appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8)

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    JAMA. 2014; 311(5):507-520. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.284427

    In the report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8), the guideline authors provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of hypertension including specific goals by age, race, and comorbidities.

  • Low-Dose Dopamine or Low-Dose Nesiritide in Acute Heart Failure With Renal Dysfunction: The ROSE Acute Heart Failure Randomized Trial

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    JAMA. 2013; 310(23):2533-2543. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.282190

    To examine the effect of low-dose dopamine or low-dose nesiritide added to diuretic therapy on decongestion and renal function in patients with acute heart failure, Chen and coauthors conducted a randomized clinical trial in 360 patients with heart failure and renal dysfunction in North America.

  • JAMA November 23, 2011

    Figure 1: Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Excretion of Sodium and Composite of Cardiovascular Death, Stroke, Myocardial Infarction, and Hospitalization for Congestive Heart Failure

    Spline plot for adjusted Cox models. Median intake is reference standard. Salt approximates 2.5 × sodium g per day. Model was adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity (white vs nonwhite); prior history of stroke or myocardial infarction; creatinine, body mass index; comorbid vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, smoking, low- and high-density lipoprotein); treatment allocation (ramipril, telmisartan, neither, or both); treatment with statins, β-blockers, diuretic therapy, calcium antagonist, and antithrombotic therapy; fruit and vegetable consumption, level of exercise; baseline blood pressure and change in systolic blood pressure from baseline to last follow-up; and urinary potassium. Dashed lines indicate 95% CIs. Events and numbers at risk are shown between values on x-axis because they indicate the numeric range between these values.aSpline curve truncated at 12 g per day (63 participants had sodium excretion >12 g/d, event rate 21/63).
  • JAMA November 23, 2011

    Figure 2: Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Excretion of Sodium and Cardiovascular Death, Myocardial Infarction, Hospitalization for Congestive Heart Failure, and Stroke

    Spline plot for adjusted Cox models. Median intake is reference standard. Salt approximates 2.5 × sodium g per day. Model was adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity (white vs nonwhite); prior history of stroke or myocardial infarction; creatinine, body mass index; comorbid vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, smoking, low- and high-density lipoprotein); treatment allocation (ramipril, telmisartan, neither, or both); treatment with statins, β-blockers, diuretic therapy, calcium antagonist, and antithrombotic therapy; fruit and vegetable consumption, level of exercise; baseline blood pressure and change in systolic blood pressure from baseline to last follow-up; and urinary potassium. Dashed lines indicate 95% CIs. Events and numbers at risk are shown between values on x-axis because they indicate the numeric range between these values.aSpline curve truncated at 12 g per day (63 participants had sodium excretion >12 g/d; event rate, 8/63 for cardiovascular death and for myocardial infarction, 7/63 for congestive heart failure, and 4/63 for stroke).
  • JAMA November 23, 2011

    Figure 3: Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Excretion of Potassium and Stroke

    Spline plot for adjusted Cox models. Median excretion is the reference standard. Model adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity (white vs nonwhite); prior history of stroke or myocardial infarction; creatinine, body mass index; comorbid vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, smoking, low- and high-density lipoprotein); treatment allocation (ramipril, telmisartan, neither, or both); treatment with statins, β-blockers, diuretic therapy, calcium antagonist, and antithrombotic therapy; fruit and vegetable consumption, level of exercise; baseline blood pressure and change in systolic blood pressure from baseline to last follow-up, and urinary sodium. Dashed lines indicate 95% CIs. Events and numbers at risk are shown between values on x-axis because they indicate the numeric range between these values.aSpline curve truncated at 5 g per day (29 participants had potassium excretion >5 g/d, event rate 1/29).
  • Experts Argue Not All Diuretics the Same

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2007; 298(1):31-31. doi: 10.1001/jama.298.1.31
  • Short-term Clinical Effects of Tolvaptan, an Oral Vasopressin Antagonist, in Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure: The EVEREST Clinical Status Trials

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    JAMA. 2007; 297(12):1332-1343. doi: 10.1001/jama.297.12.1332
  • Diuretics Are Color Blind

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    JAMA. 2005; 293(13):1663-1666. doi: 10.1001/jama.293.13.1663
  • Outcomes in Hypertensive Black and Nonblack Patients Treated With Chlorthalidone, Amlodipine, and Lisinopril

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    JAMA. 2005; 293(13):1595-1608. doi: 10.1001/jama.293.13.1595
  • Implications of Halted Study’s Findings for Hypertension Guidelines Unclear

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    JAMA. 2005; 293(11):1312-1315. doi: 10.1001/jama.293.11.1312
  • Association Between Cardiovascular Outcomes and Antihypertensive Drug Treatment in Older Women

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    JAMA. 2004; 292(23):2849-2859. doi: 10.1001/jama.292.23.2849
  • JAMA April 21, 2004

    Figure: Substitution Algorithm

    *For patients with no relevant comorbidity, guidelines recommend initial treatment with a thiazide-type diuretic.†For patients with a relevant comorbidity, guidelines recommend initial treatment with a specific drug based on the comorbidity. No substitution was required of calcium channel blockers in patients with angina, of α-blockers in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy, or of β-blockers in patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or congestive heart failure (CHF). For patients taking angiotensin receptor blockers, no substitution was required if diabetes was present or if CHF was present and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors had been prescribed previously. For patients with a history of ischemic heart disease and either diabetes or CHF, ACE inhibitors were used as the primary substitution. If the specific drug group recommended for a relevant comorbidity (see "Methods" section of text) had been used previously, a determination was made of whether a thiazide-type diuretic had also been used in the past. If there was no evidence of thiaizide use, that drug was substituted. If there was no substitution made for a given drug and a second drug was present in the regimen, the algorithm was applied to the second agent as above. Only 1 substitution was made for any individual regimen.
  • The Return on INVEST

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2003; 290(21):2859-2861. doi: 10.1001/jama.290.21.2859
  • Health Outcomes Associated With Various Antihypertensive Therapies Used as First-Line Agents: A Network Meta-analysis

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2003; 289(19):2534-2544. doi: 10.1001/jama.289.19.2534
  • Major Outcomes in High-Risk Hypertensive Patients Randomized to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor or Calcium Channel Blocker vs Diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT)

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    JAMA. 2002; 288(23):2981-2997. doi: 10.1001/jama.288.23.2981
  • Diuretics, Mortality, and Nonrecovery of Renal Function in Acute Renal Failure

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    JAMA. 2002; 288(20):2547-2553. doi: 10.1001/jama.288.20.2547
  • JAMA November 27, 2002

    Figure 1: Time Trends in Mean Serum Creatinine Levels, Mean Blood Urea Nitrogen Levels, and Median Urine Output Among the 416 Patients Who Survived for at Least 7 Days After Nephrology Consultation in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU)

    Groups are stratified by day 1 status: no diuretics vs diuretic therapy with response. To convert milligrams per deciliter to micromoles per liter, multiply by 88.4. To convert milligrams per deciliter to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.357.