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  • Global Burden of Hypertension and Systolic Blood Pressure of at Least 110 to 115 mm Hg, 1990-2015

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    JAMA. 2017; 317(2):165-182. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.19043

    This population epidemiology study uses pooled global health evaluation surveys data to estimate trends in the association between elevated stystolic blood pressure and death and disability between 1990 and 2015.

  • Association Between Blood Pressure Control and Risk of Recurrent Intracerebral Hemorrhage

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    JAMA. 2015; 314(9):904-912. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.10082

    This cohort study reports that among patients with a first episode of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), inadequate blood pressure control was associated with higher risk of recurrence of ICH.

  • JAMA September 1, 2015

    Figure 1: Participant Enrollment and Sequential Application of Eligibility and Exclusion Criteria Leading to Definition of Final Study Population

    BP indicates blood pressure; CT, computed tomography; EMR, electronic medical records; ICH, intracerebral hemorrhage.
  • JAMA September 1, 2015

    Figure 2: Estimated Yearly Risk of Recurrent ICH Based on Mean Blood Pressure Measurements During Follow-up

    Box upper and lower margins indicate 25th and 75th percentiles of risk distributions, respectively; heavy horizontal lines in boxes indicate median risk values; error bars indicate maximum and minimum estimated risk values in each distribution. Vertical lines in blue indicate currently recommended blood pressure (BP) control goals among survivors of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) without diabetes, based on American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines for post-ICH secondary prevention (lines are added for illustrative purposes only and have no direct impact on risk estimation results). A, Estimated yearly risk of recurrent lobar ICH based on systolic and diastolic BP measurements during follow-up. Estimated risk calculated adjusting for other factors associated with recurrence of lobar ICH (see main text and eMethods in the Supplement). B, Estimated yearly risk of recurrent nonlobar ICH based on systolic and diastolic BP measurements during follow-up. Risk is calculated assuming mean systolic and diastolic BP measurements as indicated on the horizontal axes and is expressed as % recurrent rate/y among survivors of nonlobar ICH. Estimated risk calculated adjusting for other factors associated with recurrence of nonlobar ICH (see main text and eTable 2 in the Supplement).
  • Anticoagulant Reversal, Blood Pressure Levels, and Anticoagulant Resumption in Patients With Anticoagulation-Related Intracerebral Hemorrhage

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    JAMA. 2015; 313(8):824-836. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.0846

    This retrospective cohort study in Germany reports on analyses of the treatment of oral anticoagulation–associated intracerebral hemorrhage and its association with rates of hematoma enlargement, ischemic and hemorrhagic events with or without resumption of oral anticoagulation, and long-term functional outcome.

  • JAMA February 24, 2015

    Figure 5: Kaplan-Meier Survival Rates of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation With and Without OAC Resumption

    Kaplan-Meier survival curves of the propensity-matched cohort (which included only patients who were discharged alive) comparing patients with atrial fibrillation who restarted oral anticoagulation (OAC) vs those who did not restart OAC. Survival is presented from index intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) until 1-year follow-up and analyzed by log-rank, Breslow, and Tarone-Ware testing.
  • JAMA February 24, 2015

    Figure 1: Flow Diagram of Participating Centers, Study Participants, and 3-Tiered Analyses

    Hematoma enlargement (analysis n = 853) was defined as a relative volume increase >33% on follow-up imaging. Overall, 160 patients received surgical hematoma evacuation; of these, we included 78 patients with follow-up imaging before surgery and excluded 82 patients without follow-up imaging before surgery. Analysis of functional long-term outcome included all the patients in the study (n = 1176). Long-term outcome was assessed at 1 year. Analysis of oral anticoagulation (OAC) resumption (n = 719) compared surviving patients who restarted OAC vs patients who did not restart OAC. CT indicates computer tomography; ICH, intracerebral hemorrhage; INR, international normalized ratio; IVH, intraventricular hemorrhage. (For details on center selection, see eFigure 1 in the Supplement.)
  • JAMA February 24, 2015

    Figure 3: Adjusted Graphical Regression Analysis of Combined Associations of INR Reversal, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Timing With Hematoma Enlargement

    Multivariable model for the combined associations, ie, extent and timing of international normalized ratio (INR) reversal and systolic blood pressure (BP), with hematoma enlargement. Hematoma enlargement was defined as relative volume increase of >33% on follow-up imaging. Adjustments consisted of all nonmodifiable parameters associated with hematoma enlargement, ie, time from symptom onset to imaging, deep intracerebral hemorrhage location, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and comorbidity (eTable 2 in the Supplement). OR indicates odds ratio.
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage, Warfarin, and Intravenous tPA: The Real Risk Is Not Treating

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    JAMA. 2012; 307(24):2637-2639. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.7265
  • JAMA July 20, 2011

    Figure: Promising New Procedure Offers Hope for Patients With Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Researchers are optimistic that a minimally invasive surgical technique can successfully treat some intracerebral hemorrhages.
  • Promising New Procedure Offers Hope for Patients With Intracerebral Hemorrhage

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    JAMA. 2011; 306(3):255-256. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.976
  • Does This Patient Have a Hemorrhagic Stroke? Clinical Findings Distinguishing Hemorrhagic Stroke From Ischemic Stroke

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    JAMA. 2010; 303(22):2280-2286. doi: 10.1001/jama.2010.754
  • Hemorrhagic Stroke

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    JAMA. 2010; 303(22):2312-2312. doi: 10.1001/jama.303.22.2312
  • JAMA June 20, 2007

    Figure: Hemorrhagic Stroke Guidelines Issued

    Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are both considered first-choice options for identifying hematomas (arrowheads) caused by hemorrhagic stroke (image from Kidwell CS et al. JAMA. 2004;292: 1823-1830).
  • JAMA January 18, 2006

    Figure 3: Effect of Aspirin Treatment on the Primary Prevention of Stroke, Ischemic Stroke, and Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Sizes of data markers are proportional to the amount of data contributed by each trial. Test for heterogeneity for stroke: women, P = .72; men, P = .80; ischemic stroke: women, P = .82; men, P = .81; and hemorrhagic stroke: women, P = .25; men, P = .78. See legend of Figure 2 for expansions of study names. CI indicates confidence interval.
  • Comparison of MRI and CT for Detection of Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

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    JAMA. 2004; 292(15):1823-1830. doi: 10.1001/jama.292.15.1823
  • Hemorrhagic Stroke

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    JAMA. 2004; 292(15):1916-1916. doi: 10.1001/jama.292.15.1916
  • Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Stroke: A Meta-analysis

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    JAMA. 2003; 289(5):579-588. doi: 10.1001/jama.289.5.579
  • Physical Activity and Risk of Stroke in Women

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    JAMA. 2000; 283(22):2961-2967. doi: 10.1001/jama.283.22.2961