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  • Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults Without Cardiovascular Risk Factors: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

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    JAMA. 2017; 318(2):167-174. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.7171

    This Recommendation Statement from the US Preventive Services Task Force recommends that primary care professionals individualize the decision to refer adults without obesity and cardiovascular risk factors to behavioral counseling to promote healthful diet and physical activity (C recommendation).

  • JAMA February 14, 2017

    Figure 3: Association of 48-SNP Polygenic Risk Score for WHR Adjusted for BMI With Cardiometabolic Quantitative Traits

    Results are standardized to a 1-SD increase in waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) adjusted for body mass index (BMI) due to polygenic risk score. For systolic blood pressure, a 1-SD genetic increase in WHR adjusted for BMI is associated with a 2.1-mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure (95% CI, 1.2-3.0) or a 0.1-SD increase in systolic blood pressure (95% CI, 0.059-0.15). For anthropometric traits, estimates from Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) derived using inverse variance–weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis) were pooled with data from the UK Biobank (derived instrumental variables regression adjusting for age, sex, 10 principal components of ancestry, and array type) using inverse variance–weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis. For lipids, glycemic, and renal function traits, estimates were derived from genome-wide association studies (Global Lipids Genetics, Meta-analyses of Glucose and Insulin-Related Traits, and Chronic Kidney Genetics Consortia, respectively). For blood pressure, estimates were derived from UK Biobank. Two-hour glucose refers to measured blood glucose levels 2 hours after consumption of dissolved glucose. The threshold of significance was P < .0033 (.05/15 = .0033). Size of data markers is inversely proportional to variance of estimate. To convert total cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C values to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0259; triglyceride values to mmol, multiply by 0.0113; and glucose values to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0555. eGFR indicates estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; OR, odds ratio; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio.aUnits reported in column 1.bCalculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared.
  • JAMA March 1, 2016

    Figure 3: Change in Fasting Plasma Glucose, 9-Point SMBG Profile, Nocturnal Hypoglycemia, and Insulin Dose Over Time for Degludec/Liraglutide vs Glargine

    ANCOVA indicates analysis of covariance; SMBG, self-measured blood glucose. To convert glucose to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0555. Time 0 indicates randomization. Error bars indicate 95% CIs. A, Based on observed values with missing data imputed by last observation carried forward for the full analysis set. The estimated treatment difference (ETD) at 26 weeks was –0.015 mg/dL (95% CI, –6.28 to 5.99), P = .96, estimated from an ANCOVA analysis based on the full analysis set. Change in mean fasting blood glucose for insulin degludec/liraglutide was −50.9 mg/dL; for insulin glargine, −49.9 mg/dL. B, Mean observed values were based on the full analysis set and missing values were imputed by last observation carried forward. At week 26, for breakfast, 90 minutes after lunch, dinner, 90 minutes after dinner, and breakfast the next day, P < .05 for degludec/liraglutide vs glargine based on linear mixed-model with an unstructured residual covariance matrix. C, Mean cumulative number of events per patient were based on the safety analysis set. The estimated rate ratio, 0.17 (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.31), P < .001, is the ETD of the linear predictor of a negative binomial regression model, back transformed to event per time scale, based on the full analysis set. Nocturnal was defined as between 12:01 am to 5:59 am (both inclusive). The number of patients with 1 episode or more was 17 for degludec/liraglutide and 68 for glargine. There were 29 events, with a rate of 0.22 per patient-year of exposure for degludec/liraglutide and 166 events with a rate of 1.23 per patient-year of exposure for glargine. D, Based on observed values with missing data imputed by last observation carried forward for the safety analysis set. The ETD at week 26 was –25.47 U (95% CI, –28.90 to –22.05), P < .001, estimated from an ANCOVA analysis based on the full analysis set. The degludec/liraglutide dose was capped at 50 dose steps; there was no maximum dose for glargine.
  • JAMA March 1, 2016

    Figure 1: Flow of Patients Through the DUAL V Trial

    FPG indicates fasting plasma glucose; SMBG, self-measured blood glucose. aPatients could have more than 1 exclusion or inclusion criteria. Details only provided for criteria accounting for more than 5% screening failure rate.bInitiation of any systemic treatment with products that, in the investigator’s opinion, could interfere with glucose metabolism.cFasting SMBG or FPG limits leading to withdrawal were 270 mg/dL (to convert FPG to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0555) from baseline to week 6, 240 mg/dL from week 7 to week 12, and 200 mg/dL from week 13 to week 26.
  • JAMA April 21, 2015

    Figure 4: Blood Glucose Concentrations Measured After the First Dose of Placebo or Insulin

    Dashed line indicates the threshold for hypoglycemia (50 mg/dL). To convert glucose values to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0555.
  • An Observational Study Goes Where Randomized Clinical Trials Have Not

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    JAMA. 2015; 313(11):1091-1092. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.0544
  • JAMA December 17, 2014

    Figure 2: Effect of the Study Diets on Blood Glucose and Insulin Levels Over 12 Hours

    In the morning after a 10- to 12-hour fast and during the fourth or fifth week of each dietary period, the participants were given breakfast, lunch, and dinner that had the food and nutrient composition of the assigned diet period. Blood was sampled before breakfast, usually at 8:00 am, 8:30 am, 9:00 am, and hourly, ending at approximately 7:30 pm. See eTable 3 in Supplement 2 for data on glucose and insulin area under the curve and statistical testing. A self-selected subgroup of participants were included. Carb indicates carbohydrate; GI, glycemic index. To convert glucose to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0555; insulin to pmol/L, multiply by 6.945.
  • From JAMA ’s Daily News Site

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    JAMA. 2013; 309(16):1673-1673. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.3968
  • Ethnic Blood Glucose Variations

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    JAMA. 2012; 308(11):1081-1081. doi: 10.1001/2012.jama.11946
  • JAMA September 19, 2012

    Figure 4: Propensity Score–Adjusted Odds Ratios Comparing Incidence and Remission Rates of Diabetes, Hypertension, and Dyslipidemia Determined at Years 2 and 6 in RYGB Surgery and Control Groups 1 and 2

    RYGB indicates Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Odds ratios are adjusted for a propensity score composed of age, sex, baseline body mass index, income, education level, and marital status (95% CIs are adjusted for multiple comparisons). Clinical end points for both incidence and remission rates were defined as type 2 diabetes (a fasting concentration of blood glucose ≥126 mg/dL, hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5, or use of antidiabetic medication); hypertension (resting blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medications); and dyslipidemia (a fasting concentration of measured low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] ≥160 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] <40 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥200 mg/dL, or use of lipid-lowering medication). No estimate was available for year 2 diabetes incidence (there was no incident diabetes in the RYGB surgery group at 2 years).
  • Notes From the Field: Deaths From Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infection Associated With Assisted Blood Glucose Monitoring in an Assisted-Living Facility—North Carolina, August—October 2010

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    JAMA. 2011; 305(14):1405-1406. doi:
  • JAMA March 24, 2010

    Figure: Aggressive Glycemic Control Might Not Be Best Choice for All Diabetic Patients

    Physicians need to balance the risks of microvascular vs macrovascular complications when adjusting blood glucose concentrations in patients with diabetes.
  • JAMA January 27, 2010

    Figure 2: Comparison of Mean 8 AM Blood Glucose According to Intensive Insulin Therapy and to Conventional Glucose Control

    Blood glucose measurements were not available at 8 AM for 3 patients receiving intensive insulin and for 2 receiving conventional glucose therapy. The error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals. To convert mg/dL to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0555.
  • Corticosteroid Treatment and Intensive Insulin Therapy for Septic Shock in Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    JAMA. 2010; 303(4):341-348. doi: 10.1001/jama.2010.2
  • JAMA November 25, 2009

    Figure: Gestational Diabetes

    New findings indicate that women with mild gestational diabetes may benefit from dietary changes, monitoring their blood glucose levels, and, when necessary, taking insulin.
  • JAMA September 16, 2009

    Figure 2: Impact of Individual Treatments on Levels of Glucose, HbA1c, and Weight

    End-of-study geometric mean levels of fasting self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG), 2-hour postprandial SMBG, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) are plotted for each of the 4 individual treatment groups. Models were adjusted for treatment stratum and conditioned on baseline values. All P values <.001 for comparisons vs placebo. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
  • JAMA March 26, 2008

    Figure: Contradictory Findings Ignite Questions About Blood Glucose Targets in Diabetes

    Contradictory findings from 2 studies that were announced through the news media have left physicians treating patients with diabetes concerned about the aggressive lowering of blood glucose to levels below those recommended in treatment guidelines.
  • Contradictory Findings Ignite Questions About Blood Glucose Targets in Diabetes

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    JAMA. 2008; 299(12):1413-1415. doi: 10.1001/jama.299.12.1413
  • Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Among Adults With Diabetes—United States, 1997-2006

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    JAMA. 2007; 298(24):2861-2863. doi: 10.1001/jama.298.24.2861
  • JAMA August 8, 2007

    Figure: Study Finds Newborn Outcomes Affected by Blood Glucose Levels During Pregnancy

    A recent study has found that elevated blood glucose levels in pregnant women without diabetes can increase risks for newborns.