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  • Effect of Supplemental Donor Human Milk Compared With Preterm Formula on Neurodevelopment of Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants at 18 Months: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    JAMA. 2016; 316(18):1897-1905. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.16144

    This randomized clinical trial compares the effects of supplementing maternal breast milk with nutrient-enriched donor milk vs preterm formula on neurocognitive development of very low-birth-weight infants at 18 months’ corrected age.

  • Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

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    JAMA. 2016; 315(11):1129-1140. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.1975

    This genetic epidemiology study uses mendelian randomization to investigate associations between maternal body mass index and glucose and lipid levels and offspring birth weight between 1929 and 2013.

  • JAMA March 15, 2016

    Figure 2: Comparison of the Observational With the Genetic Change in Birth Weight (in grams) for an Standard Deviation Change in Each Maternal Obesity-Related Trait

    aFor 25[OH]D and adiponectin, we present the change in birth weight for a 10% change in maternal trait level because these variables were logged for analysis. The genetic change was estimated from mendelian randomization analysis, in which a genetic score was used to estimate the possible causal relationship between the maternal trait and birth weight. The genetic estimate is presented twice: in the second case it was adjusted for fetal genotype using a subset of available studies. The error bars represent the 95% CIs around the effect size estimates. For maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and fasting glucose, the 95% CIs for both the observational and genetic approaches exclude the null, suggesting positive possible causal relationships between maternal BMI and fasting glucose and birth weight. For maternal systolic blood pressure, the observational analysis suggested a weak positive association with birth weight, whereas the genetic analysis showed evidence of a negative possible causal relationship. Observational analyses suggested that higher maternal triglyceride levels, lower maternal adiponectin and lower maternal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were associated with higher birth weight, whereas lower maternal vitamin D status was associated with lower birth weight, but none of these was supported by the genetic analyses. To convert glucose from mg/dL to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0555; HDL-C from mg/dL to mmol/L, 0.0259; triglycerides from mg/dL to mmol/L, 0.0113.
  • Effect of Daily Antenatal Iron Supplementation on Plasmodium Infection in Kenyan Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    JAMA. 2015; 314(10):1009-1020. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.9496

    This randomized trial compares the effects of daily iron supplementation vs placebo on maternal Plasmodium infection risk and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women living in a malaria endemic area.

  • JAMA June 23, 2015

    Figure 2: Multivariable Analysis of In-Hospital Mortality in Preterm Infants Alive at Day 3

    Model 1 adjusted for gestational age; model 2, for gestational age, sex, and birthweight z score; model 3, for gestational age, weighted by the inverse of the propensity score; model 4, for gestational age, weighted by the inverse of the propensity score and with analysis accounting for clustering on neonatal units. The position of each square represents the point estimate of the exposure effect. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.
  • JAMA May 28, 2014

    Figure 2: Effect of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on Newborn Pulmonary Function as Modulated by Maternal α5 Genotype (rs16969968)

    Newborns whose mothers were homozygous for the risk allele in which amino acid 398 of the α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is changed from Asp to Asn showed the largest decrease in ratio of time to peak tidal expiratory flow to expiratory time (TPTEF:TE) comparing placebo with vitamin C treatment. Data markers indicate means; error bars, 95% confidence intervals. Asp/Asp indicates mothers homozygous for nonrisk allele; Asp/Asn, heterozygous mothers; Asn/Asn, mothers homozygous for risk allele. P values comparing TPTEF:TE values from newborns of mothers randomized to receive vitamin C vs placebo are .02 for mothers of all genotypes, .32 for Asp/Asp, .07 for Asp/Asn, and <.001 for Asn/Asn. P values are from linear mixed models (used to allow for unequal variance), adjusting for gestational age at randomization (≤16 vs >16 weeks), birthweight, and gestational age younger than 37 weeks and allowing for different SDs within each genotype.
  • JAMA February 12, 2014

    Figure 2: Association of Plasma Insulin Levels at Birth With Gestational Age, Stratified by Birthweight for Gestational Age Category (n = 1117)

    To convert insulin to pmol/mL, multiply by 6.945.The y-axis is the mean of logarithmically transformed insulin levels. Birthweight for gestational age was categorized into 3 groups: small for gestational age (birthweight, <10th percentile; n=174), large for gestational age (birthweight, ≥90th percentile; n=89), and appropriate for gestational age (birthweight, 10th-90th percentile; n=854) according to the local reference population.
  • JAMA December 11, 2013

    Figure: Donor Oocyte Trends in the United States From 2000-2010

    Good perinatal outcome defined as a singleton live birth at 37 weeks or later and birth weight of 2500 g or more. Y-axes shown in blue indicate the interval 0% to 12.5%. ART indicates assisted reproductive technology.
  • Infant Birth Weight, Gestational Age Affect Maternal Diabetes Risk

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    JAMA. 2013; 310(19):2032-2032. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.281093
  • Intermittent Preventive Therapy for Malaria During Pregnancy Using 2 vs 3 or More Doses of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Risk of Low Birth Weight in Africa: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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    JAMA. 2013; 309(6):594-604. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.216231
    In a meta-analysis of data from 7 trials conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, Kayentao and coauthors explored whether 3 or more doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine would be associated with higher birth weight or less risk of low birth weight compared with the standard 2 doses.
  • JAMA February 13, 2013

    Figure 2: Meta-analysis of Mean Birth Weight in 7 Trials Comparing the Standard 2-Dose vs 3 or More Doses of Intermittent Preventive Therapy During Pregnancy With Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine

    G1-G2 indicates first and second pregnancies; ≥G3, 2 or more previous pregnancies; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus status. P values after the I2 statistics represent the χ2 test for heterogeneity. Dersimonian-Laird method used for random-effects models; inverse-variance method used in the fixed-effects models. Weights are from random-effects analysis. Data marker sizes indicate the weight applied to each study with random-effects meta-analysis. Test for subgroup differences: χ24  = 3.14, P = .53, l2 = 0.0%.
  • Effects of Prenatal Micronutrient and Early Food Supplementation on Maternal Hemoglobin, Birth Weight, and Infant Mortality Among Children in Bangladesh: The MINIMat Randomized Trial

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    JAMA. 2012; 307(19):2050-2059. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.4061
    To test the hypothesis that prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation as well as an early invitation to food supplementation would increase maternal hemoglobin and birth weight and decrease infant mortality, Persson and coauthors identified 4436 pregnant women through monthly surveillance in Bangladesh. In an editorial, Christian and Black discuss food, micronutrients, and birth outcomes.
  • Perinatal Regionalization for Very Low-Birth-Weight and Very Preterm Infants: A Meta-analysis

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    JAMA. 2010; 304(9):992-1000. doi: 10.1001/jama.2010.1226
  • JAMA September 1, 2010

    Figure 3: Meta-analysis Results of Adequate- and High-Quality Publications on Very Low-Birth-Weight (VLBW) Infants, Stratified by Level of Adjustment for Confounding

    Case mix indicates adjustment for demographic and/or socioeconomic status variables; extensive indicates adjustment for case mix plus maternal/perinatal risk factors and infant illness severity. CI indicates confidence interval. Size of data markers indicates size of study population. aIncluded data are for urban populations and combine reported black/white race strata and birth weight strata (750-1000 g and 1001-1500 g). bIncluded data combine reported birth date interval strata (1980-1984, 1985-1989, and 1990-1994) and birth weight strata (500-1000 g and 1001-1500 g). cRaw death counts are not reported in Cifuentes et al and Kamath et al and are not stratified by hospital level in Howell et al. These studies are not included in combined death/birth counts.
  • JAMA September 1, 2010

    Figure 4: Meta-analysis Results of Adequate- and High-Quality Publications on Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    CI indicates confidence interval. Size of data markers indicates size of study population. aIncluded data are for urban populations and combine reported black/white race strata. bIncluded data combine reported birth weight strata (500-749 g and 750-1000 g). cIncluded data combine reported birth date interval strata (1980-1984, 1985-1989, and 1990-1994). dThe study by Kamath et al does not report raw death count data and is not included in combined death/birth counts.
  • Rates of and Factors Associated With Delivery-Related Perinatal Death Among Term Infants in Scotland

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    JAMA. 2009; 302(6):660-668. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.1111
  • Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Preterm Infants Fed High-Dose Docosahexaenoic Acid: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    JAMA. 2009; 301(2):175-182. doi: 10.1001/jama.2008.945
  • Birth Weight and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review

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    JAMA. 2008; 300(24):2886-2897. doi: 10.1001/jama.2008.886
  • JAMA June 27, 2007

    Figure 2: Number of Children With Cerebral Palsy Per 1000 Gestational Age–Specific Live Births of 20 Through 25 Weeks and 26 Through 27 Weeks and With Birth Weights Between 500 and 1249 g in Relation to 10 Birth-Year Groups Over 30 Years

    The heavy line represents linear-spline logistic model fit of neonates whose gestational age was 20 through 25 weeks and the thin line for those whose gestational age was 26 through 27 weeks.
  • Changes in the Prevalence of Cerebral Palsy for Children Born Very Prematurely Within a Population-Based Program Over 30 Years

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    JAMA. 2007; 297(24):2733-2740. doi: 10.1001/jama.297.24.2733