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  • JAMA September 19, 2017

    Figure 1: Flow Diagram of Trial Participants

    Participants who did not have hypertension were the spouses of patients with hypertension (<140/90 mm Hg) and did not use antihypertensive medications. Although many centers met the eligibility criteria, 18 were recommended based on their geographic distribution, their willingness to participate, and their previous experience collaborating with the coordinating center. The centers were not randomly selected.
  • JAMA May 24, 2016

    Figure 2: Multiple-Adjusted Hazard Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals of Cardiovascular Diseases Associated With Calibrated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion

    Hazard ratios were adjusted for age, sex, race, clinic site, education, waist circumference, lean body mass index, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, history of cardiovascular disease, antidiabetic medications, lipid-lowering medications, diuretics, renin-angiotensin system blocking agents, other antihypertensive medications, urinary creatinine excretion, and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate.
  • Polypharmacy in the Aging Patient: Management of Hypertension in Octogenarians

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    JAMA. 2015; 314(2):170-180. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.7517

    This review summarizes approaches to managing hypertension in octogenarians based on guidelines of international expert organizations.

  • Multiple Blood Pressure Medications and Mortality Among Elderly Individuals

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    JAMA. 2015; 313(13):1362-1363. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.248
  • JAMA February 10, 2015

    Figure 5: Associations of Each Class of Antihypertensives on Mortality, Cardiovascular Events, Coronary Heart Disease Events, Stroke Events, and Heart Failure Events Compared With All Other Classes of Antihypertensives

    aSystolic blood pressure (SBP) reduction is reported as a 95% CI for the mean reduction at the trial level, not a range of reduction among trials.The area of each square is proportional to the inverse variance of the estimate. Horizontal lines indicate 95% CIs of the estimate. ACE indicates angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; CCB, calcium channel blocker.
  • Effect of Self-monitoring and Medication Self-titration on Systolic Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: The TASMIN-SR Randomized Clinical Trial

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    JAMA. 2014; 312(8):799-808. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.10057

    McManus and coauthors found that patients with hypertension at risk of cardiovascular disease who were randomly assigned to self-monitor their blood pressure and self-titrate their medication reduced their systolic blood pressure more than did patients who were randomized to the usual care cohort.

  • JAMA February 5, 2014

    Figure 4: Effect of Antihypertensive Treatment on Death or Major Disability at 3 Months

    Major disability was defined as a score of 3 to 6 on the modified Rankin Scale (score of 0 indicates no symptoms, score of 5 indicates severe disability, and score of 6 indicates death). Each percentage is based on the number of participants in that subgroup. Data markers indicate point estimates (with the area of the square proportional to the number of events); error bars indicate 95% CIs. Scores on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) range from 0 (normal neurologic status) to 42 (coma with quadriplegia).
  • JAMA February 5, 2014

    Figure 3: Effect of Antihypertensive Treatment on Death or Major Disability at 14 Days or Hospital Discharge

    Major disability was defined as a score of 3 to 6 on the modified Rankin Scale (score of 0 indicates no symptoms, score of 5 indicates severe disability, and score of 6 indicates death). Each percentage is based on the number of participants in that subgroup. Data markers indicate point estimates (with the area of the square proportional to the number of events); error bars indicate 95% CIs. Scores on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) range from 0 (normal neurologic status) to 42 (coma with quadriplegia).
  • Effects of Immediate Blood Pressure Reduction on Death and Major Disability in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: The CATIS Randomized Clinical Trial

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    JAMA. 2014; 311(5):479-489. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.282543
  • 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Report From the Panel Members Appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8)

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    JAMA. 2014; 311(5):507-520. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.284427

    In the report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8), the guideline authors provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of hypertension including specific goals by age, race, and comorbidities.

  • Effects of a Fixed-Dose Combination Strategy on Adherence and Risk Factors in Patients With or at High Risk of CVD: The UMPIRE Randomized Clinical Trial

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    JAMA. 2013; 310(9):918-929. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.277064

    Thom and coauthors conducted a randomized trial of 2004 participants in India and Europe with or at high risk of established cardiovascular disease (CVD) to assess whether a fixed-dose combination of aspirin, statin, and 2 antihypertensive agents vs usual care improved adherence to therapy and 2 major CVD risk factors. Gaziano comments in an editorial.

  • JAMA August 21, 2013

    Figure: HRs of Incident CHD by Race and ACR

    White participants with an albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) of less than 10 mg/g are the reference standard. Error bars indicate 95% CIs for hazard ratios (HRs) of incident coronary heart disease (CHD). The multivariable model was adjusted for age, sex, geographic region of residence, income, education, health insurance coverage, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, estimated glomerular filtration rate, C-reactive protein, diabetes, smoking status, physical activity, regular aspirin use, use of statins, and use of any antihypertensive medications, angiotensin II receptor blockers, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
  • JAMA November 28, 2012

    Figure: Consumer Group Asks FDA to Warn Patients About Hypertension Combination Therapy

    Concerns have been raised about combining antihypertensive medications containing angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), and the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren.
  • JAMA November 7, 2012

    Figure 1: Prevalence of Adverse Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profiles for All Participants and by Hispanic/Latino Group and Sex

    Risk factors were hypercholesterolemia (serum total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL or taking cholesterol-lowering medication), hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg or taking antihypertensive medication), obesity (body mass index ≥30, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), diabetes mellitus (use of diabetes medication, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, 2-hour-postload plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL, or hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%), and smoking (current cigarette smoker). Values were weighted for survey design and nonresponse and adjusted for age. Error bars indicate 95% CI.
  • JAMA November 7, 2012

    Figure 2: Association of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors With Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence Among Hispanic/Latino Participants by Sex

    High cholesterol was defined as serum total cholesterol level ≥240 mg/dL or taking cholesterol-lowering medication. High blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg or taking antihypertensive medication. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥30 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). Diabetes mellitus was defined as use of diabetes medication, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, 2-hour-postload plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL, or hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%. Smoking was defined as current cigarette smoker. Model 1 was adjusted for age. Model 2 was adjusted for age and all other major biomedical cardiovascular disease risk factors. Model 3 was adjusted for all variables in model 2 plus education, annual family income, Hispanic/Latino background, language preference, nativity (US born), Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics score, physical activity, and diet. Error bars indicate 95% CI.
  • JAMA September 19, 2012

    Figure 4: Propensity Score–Adjusted Odds Ratios Comparing Incidence and Remission Rates of Diabetes, Hypertension, and Dyslipidemia Determined at Years 2 and 6 in RYGB Surgery and Control Groups 1 and 2

    RYGB indicates Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Odds ratios are adjusted for a propensity score composed of age, sex, baseline body mass index, income, education level, and marital status (95% CIs are adjusted for multiple comparisons). Clinical end points for both incidence and remission rates were defined as type 2 diabetes (a fasting concentration of blood glucose ≥126 mg/dL, hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5, or use of antidiabetic medication); hypertension (resting blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medications); and dyslipidemia (a fasting concentration of measured low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] ≥160 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] <40 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥200 mg/dL, or use of lipid-lowering medication). No estimate was available for year 2 diabetes incidence (there was no incident diabetes in the RYGB surgery group at 2 years).
  • Antihypertensive Treatment and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Events Among Persons Without Hypertension: A Meta-analysis

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    JAMA. 2011; 305(9):913-922. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.250
  • Association Between Admission Supine Systolic Blood Pressure and 1-Year Mortality in Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit for Acute Chest Pain

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    JAMA. 2010; 303(12):1167-1172. doi: 10.1001/jama.2010.314
  • JAMA March 24, 2010

    Figure 1: Adjusted Cumulative 1-Year Mortality Risk by Quartile of Systolic Blood Pressure

    The Nelson-Aalen method was used in the total cohort (n = 119 151; n = 118 607 with data on all covariates) and adjusted for age; sex; smoking; diastolic blood pressure; use of antihypertensive medication and nitroglycerin at admission; and use at discharge of antihypertensive, statin, antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and other lipid-lowering medication. P values refer to comparisons between quartiles.
  • JAMA March 24, 2010

    Figure 2: Hazard Ratio and Systolic Blood Pressure at Admission for 1-99 Percentiles of Participants in the Total Cohort

    Data were stratified on age in 10 categories and adjusted for age; sex; smoking; diastolic blood pressure; use of antihypertensive medication and nitroglycerin at admission; use at discharge of antihypertensive, statin, antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and other lipid-lowering medication. The graph is based on fractional polynomials with powers 2 and 1. Dashed lines indicated 95% confidence intervals.