Showing 1 – 20 of 1997
Relevance | Newest | Oldest |
  • JAMA April 25, 2017

    Figure 3: Time to Colonoscopy After a Positive FIT and Adjusted Riska of Colorectal Cancer Stages 0-IV

    BMI indicates body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared); FIT, fecal immunochemical test; OR, odds ratio. Models for stage-specific colorectal cancer exclude patients with colorectal cancer of any stage other than the specified stage. The adjusted models for colorectal cancer stages 0, III, and IV dropped 242 patients with unknown BMI because no patient with unknown BMI had these outcomes. The adjusted colorectal cancer stage IV model dropped 2435 patients with unknown race/ethnicity because no patient with unknown race/ethnicity had this outcome.aAdjusted for sex; age; race/ethnicity; BMI; region; FIT screening year; completion of previous FIT screening (ever and in the prior year); and in the year prior to FIT screening, receipt of the flu or pneumonia vaccine, presence of gastrointestinal symptoms (bleeding or blood in stool, unexplained weight loss, abdominal pain, diarrhea, diverticulitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or Lynch syndrome), diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia or diabetes, current smoker, number of primary care visits, and number of days hospitalized.bRates (95% CIs) were per 1000 patients who had a colonoscopy after a positive FIT.
  • JAMA April 25, 2017

    Figure 2: Time to Colonoscopy After a Positive FIT and Adjusted Riska of Advanced Adenoma, Any Colorectal Cancer, and Advanced-Stage Colorectal Cancer

    BMI indicates body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared); FIT, fecal immunochemical test; OR, odds ratio. Models for any colorectal cancer include the entire population. Advanced adenoma was defined as adenomas with advanced histology (ie, tubulovillous and villous adenomas). Models for advanced adenoma exclude 2191 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Advanced-stage cancers were defined as stage III (regional lymph node involvement) or stage IV (distant metastasis) according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system or, for those without such staging, as code 3 (disease in the regional lymph nodes), code 4 (regional disease with direct extension and spread to the regional lymph nodes), or code 7 (distant metastasis) according to the 2013 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program Coding and Staging Manual. Models for advanced-stage colorectal cancer exclude 14 patients with colorectal cancer of unknown stage. The adjusted advanced-stage colorectal cancer model dropped 244 patients with unknown BMI because no patient with unknown BMI had this outcome. aAdjusted for sex; age; race/ethnicity; BMI; region; FIT screening year; completion of previous FIT screening (ever and in the prior year); and in the year prior to FIT screening, receipt of the flu or pneumonia vaccine, presence of gastrointestinal symptoms (bleeding or blood in stool, unexplained weight loss, abdominal pain, diarrhea, diverticulitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or Lynch syndrome), diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia or diabetes, current smoker, number of primary care visits, and number of days hospitalized.bRates (95% CIs) were per 1000 patients who had a colonoscopy after a positive FIT.
  • JAMA June 21, 2016

    Figure 3: Benefits, Harms, and Burden of Colorectal Screening Strategies Over a Lifetime

    Outcomes are from Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET) models, which include the Simulation Model of Colorectal Cancer (SimCRC), the Microsimulation Screening Analysis (MISCAN) for Colorectal Cancer, and the Colorectal Cancer Simulated Population model for Incidence and Natural History (CRC-SPIN). Screening occurs between the ages of 50 and 75 years, with follow-up continuing throughout an individual’s remaining life span. FIT indicates fecal immunochemical test; FIT-DNA, multitargeted stool DNA test; HSgFOBT, high-sensitivity guaiac-based fecal occult blood test. aThese strategies yield comparable life-years gained (ie, the life-years gained with the noncolonoscopy strategies were within 90% of those gained with the colonoscopy strategy) and an efficient balance of benefits and harms (ie, no other strategy or combination of strategies within the class of screening tests provides more life-years with the same [or fewer] number of colonoscopies, which represents the primary source of harms from screening).bComputed tomographic (CT) colonography can also be considered efficient, but if cathartic bowel preparation is considered to be a proxy measure for the burden of screening (instead of number of lifetime colonoscopies), its efficiency ratio (ie, the incremental number of colonoscopies required to achieve an additional year of life gained [∆COL/∆LYG]) exceeds that of colonoscopy.cGastrointestinal events include perforations, bleeding, transfusions, paralytic ileus, nausea and vomiting, dehydration, and abdominal pain. Cardiovascular events include myocardial infarction, angina, arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, cardiac or respiratory arrest, syncope, hypotension, and shock.
  • Progressive Anemia and Left Upper Quadrant Pain in a Patient With Polycythemia Vera

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2014; 311(21):2227-2228. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.117
  • JAMA May 28, 2014

    Figure 2: RAPID Score Distribution by Assigned Treatment Group and Visit

    The boxes indicate interquartile ranges; circle within box, mean; horizontal line within box, median; error bars, 1.5 times the interquartile range; and circles, outliers. RAPID indicates Recurrent Abdominal Pain Intensity and Disability.
  • Abdominal Pain and Subcutaneous Nodules

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2014; 311(6):615-616. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.284966
  • JAMA December 25, 2013

    Figure 3: Changes From Baseline in Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) Scores by Treatment Group

    Subscore ranges are scaled from 1 (no discomfort) to 7 (very severe discomfort). There was an overall decrease in the abdominal pain score but otherwise no differences in other outcomes between the nortriptyline group compared with the placebo group. P values shown are for the overall treatment effect from a repeated-measures analysis adjusting for the baseline value of the outcome.
  • Patient With a Rash, Abdominal Pain, and Weight Loss

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2012; 307(8):843-844. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.198
  • Does This Child Have Appendicitis?

    Abstract Full Text
    is expired quiz
    JAMA. 2007; 298(4):438-451. doi: 10.1001/jama.298.4.438
  • JAMA April 6, 2005

    Figure: Pathobiological Effects of Cell-Free Plasma Hemoglobin and Nitric Oxide (NO) Depletion During Intravascular Hemolysis

    During intravascular hemolysis, hemoglobin is released into the plasma where it is normally cleared by the hemoglobin scavengers haptoglobin, CD163, and hemopexin. Haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes bind to CD163 on the surface of macrophages/monocytes initiating endocytosis and degradation of the complex. Hemoglobin also releases ferric heme on oxidation, which is bound by hemopexin and degraded by hepatocytes in the liver. Excessive hemolysis saturates and depletes these hemoglobin removal systems and leads to a buildup of hemoglobin and heme in the plasma. Plasma hemoglobin and heme mediate direct proinflammatory, proliferative, and pro-oxidant effects on vessel endothelial cells. NO is normally generated from L-arginine in vessel endothelial cells by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). NO maintains smooth muscle relaxation and inhibits platelet activation and aggregation, thereby regulating vessel tone and promoting organ system homeostasis. During intravascular hemolysis, NO availability can be severely limited by its reaction with oxyhemoglobin (NO scavenging) and by the breakdown of the substrate for NO synthesis, L-arginine, by the red cell enzyme arginase, despite elevated levels of NOS (decreased NO synthesis). NO depletion results in decreased activation of guanylate cyclase, an enzyme required for the generation of cyclic guanine monophosphate (cGMP). Decreased cGMP levels disrupt regulation of smooth muscle tone resulting in dystonias, including systemic and pulmonary hypertension, erectile dysfunction, dysphagia, and abdominal pain. Decreased cGMP levels through the depletion of NO can also lead to platelet activation and aggregation, promoting clot formation. GTP indicates guanosine 5’-triphosphate.
  • JAMA August 18, 1999

    Figure 2: Graph of Utility vs Kidney Function

    Utility expresses health-related quality of life as a fraction of full health. The lower graph was constructed by fitting a smooth curve through the 3 points shown. The 2 points on the right indicate utilities for each of 2 health states derived using a time trade-off procedure. The upper graph shows how the curve would shift in the absence of abdominal pain associated with enlarged kidneys.
  • JAMA February 12, 2014

    Figure 1: Abdominal Pain and Subcutaneous Nodules

    Erythematous nodules on foot and ankle of patient.
  • JAMA February 12, 2014

    Figure 2: Abdominal Pain and Subcutaneous Nodules

    Skin biopsy showing ghost adipocytes and dystrophic calcification (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification ×200).
  • JAMA August 28, 2013

    Figure 1: Acute Abdominal Pain and Abnormal CT Findings

    Computed tomography scan in the case patient. A, Axial view. B, Coronal view. C, Sagittal view.
  • JAMA August 28, 2013

    Figure 2: Acute Abdominal Pain and Abnormal CT Findings

    Pink arrowhead indicates the thickened appendiceal wall; blue arrowhead indicates the fecolith.
  • JAMA October 11, 2006

    Figure: Acute Abdominal Pain

  • JAMA October 11, 2006

    Figure 1: Diagnosis and Management Pathway in Patients With Acute Abdominal Pain Having Uncertain Diagnosis and Operative Decision After the Initial Examination

    Patients may be given opiates between the initial examination and final examination when a decision is made about surgery. Opiates might alter the clinical findings and therefore affect the decision to proceed to surgery. Surgery may be required to establish the final diagnosis.
  • JAMA September 15, 1999

    Figure 1: Computed Tomography With Rectal Contrast Performed on a 12-Year-Old Girl With Diffuse Abdominal Pain of 72 Hours' Duration

    Axial computed tomography with rectal contrast image of the right lower quadrant showing a calcified appendicolith (arrowhead) in the lumen of the appendix and stranding of the surrounding fat (arrow). The appendix is enlarged, measuring 10 mm in diameter. The spine is visualized on the right side of the image.