Author Contributions: Dr Chang had full access
to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Chang, Brem, Berger,
Acquisition of data: Huang, Anderson, Asher,
Bernstein, Lillehei, Brem, Laws.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Chang,
Parney, Huang, Anderson, Bernstein, Brem, Laws.
Drafting of the manuscript: Chang, Parney,
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Chang, Parney, Anderson, Asher, Bernstein, Lillehei,
Brem, Berger, Laws.
Statistical analysis: Huang.
Obtained funding: Anderson, Brem, Berger.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Parney, Huang, Anderson, Asher, Brem.
Study supervision: Chang, Huang, Bernstein,
Lillehei, Berger, Laws.
Financial Disclosures: Under separate licensing
agreements between the Johns Hopkins University and Guilford Pharmaceuticals
Inc and the Johns Hopkins University and Angiotech Pharmaceuticals Inc, Dr
Brem is entitled to a share of royalty received by the university on sales
of products described in this article. Dr Brem owns Guilford Pharmaceuticals
stock, which is subject to certain restrictions under university policy. Dr
Brem is also a paid consultant to Guilford Pharmaceuticals. The terms of this
arrangement are being managed by the Johns Hopkins University in accordance
with its conflict-of-interest policies. No other authors reported financial
Funding/Support: Dr Parney is an Accelerate
Brain Cancer Cure (ABC2) Foundation fellow. The GO Project was
supported by unrestricted educational grants from Aventis Pharma and Guilford
Pharmaceuticals to the Center for Outcomes Research, University of Massachusetts
Medical School. This study was also supported in part by NIH/NCI grant PO1
CA13525 to the University of California, San Francisco.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding organizations
had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management,
analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval
of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We thank Sharon Reynolds, BA,
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco,
for extensive editorial support.