Author Contributions: Dr Forman had full access
to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Forman, Curhan.
Acquisition of data: Stampfer, Curhan.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Forman,
Rimm, Stampfer, Curhan.
Drafting of the manuscript: Forman.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Forman, Rimm, Stampfer, Curhan.
Statistical analysis: Forman, Stampfer, Curhan.
Obtained funding: Forman, Curhan.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Forman, Stampfer, Curhan.
Study supervision: Rimm, Curhan.
Financial Disclosure: The Nurses’ Health
Studies have received modest resources from the Alcoholic Beverage Medical
Research Foundation, the American Cancer Society, Amgen, the California Prune
Board, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Ellison Medical
Foundation, the Florida Citrus Growers, the California Strawberry Commission,
the Glaucoma Medical Research Foundation, Hoffman-La Roche, Kellogg’s,
Lederle, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Mission Pharmacal,
the National Dairy Council, Rhone Poulenc Rorer, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation,
Roche, GlaxoSmithKline, Ortho-McNeil, Sandoz, the US Department of Defense,
the US Department of Agriculture, the Wallace Genetics Fund, Wyeth-Ayerst,
Merck, Genzyme, TAP Pharmaceutical, Esai and Janssen Pharmaceutica, and private
Funding/Support: This study was funded by National
Institutes of Health grants HL78093, DK07791, DK52866, CA87969, and CA050385.
Role of the Sponsor: The National Institutes
of Health had no role in the collection, management, analysis, or intrepretation
of the data and had no role in the preparation, review, or approval of the