Author Contributions: Dr Larimer had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Larimer, Malone, Garner, Burlingham, Lonczak, Ginzler, Clifasefi, Hobson, Marlatt.
Acquisition of data: Larimer, Garner, Burlingham, Lonczak, Tanzer, Ginzler, Clifasefi.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Atkins, Larimer, Malone, Garner, Burlingham, Lonczak, Tanzer, Ginzler, Clifasefi, Hobson, Marlatt.
Drafting of the manuscript: Larimer, Malone, Garner, Atkins, Burlingham, Lonczak, Tanzer, Ginzler, Clifasefi, Hobson, Marlatt.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Larimer, Malone, Garner, Atkins, Lonczak, Tanzer, Ginzler, Clifasefi, Hobson, Marlatt.
Statistical analysis: Atkins.
Obtained funding: Larimer, Malone, Garner, Burlingham, Lonczak, Tanzer, Ginzler, Clifasefi, Hobson, Marlatt.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Malone, Garner, Burlingham, Lonczak, Tanzer, Ginzler, Clifasefi, Hobson.
Study supervision: Larimer, Garner, Lonczak, Ginzler, Clifasefi, Marlatt.
Financial Disclosures: The Downtown Emergency Service Center (DESC) approached University of Washington researchers to obtain a third-party evaluation of the 1811 Eastlake program. This academic research team and the DESC had not previously worked together, nor did any authors have vested or conflicting interests beyond what is noted here. Dr Marlatt has discussed 1811 Eastlake and the evaluation of it, along with other related topics, at professional meetings for which he reported receiving honoraria. Messrs Hobson and Malone have discussed 1811 Eastlake and the evaluation of the program at meetings with policy makers, other agencies, and professional conferences. Neither has received direct financial benefit from such dissemination, although the DESC may subsequently gain public favor and funding as a result. Success with future funding to further explore the 1811 Eastlake Housing First program would likely include support of research-related functions of the DESC. No further financial disclosures were reported by the authors.
Funding/Support: The Substance Abuse Policy Research Program (SAPRP) of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation sponsored this research through SAPRP grant 053672 awarded to Dr Larimer, which provided subject incentives, partial support for researchers, and most of the costs of conducting the study; the SAPRP also awarded supplemental grant 63414 to Dr Garner, which provided partial support for her. Dr Marlatt's effort was supported by Senior Scientist grant 2K05AA00113-17 (Prevention of Alcohol Problems) from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA); Dr Ginzler's effort was supported by grant 5K01DA014685-5 (Substance Use and Suicide in Street Youth) from the National Institutes of Health (NIH); and Dr Garner and Ms Burlingham were supported in part by bequeathed funds, the University of Washington James H. Tharp Trust. Dr Atkins received consultant funding from SAPRP grant 053672 for statistical work. Some support for staffing was provided through SAPRP grant 053672 for Mr Tanzer through a subcontract to the DESC. The DESC has also sponsored project research efforts among their administrators (including Messrs Hobson, Malone, and Tanzer) and staff in addition to staffing and operating the 1811 Eastlake facility under evaluation. The DESC provided space for participant interviews and built interactive tracking and data housing databases used in the study, which it maintained on its protected servers.
Role of the Sponsor: The SAPRP and NIH (through the K awards) had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. The authors employed by the DESC (Messrs Hobson, Malone, and Tanzer) have been involved with all phases of this research and manuscript development, but all statistical analyses and primary interpretation of data have been performed by Dr Atkins and other academic members of the research team.
Previous Presentation: Presented in part at the annual SAPRP awardee conference; December 16, 2008; Tucson, Arizona. Dr Atkins used this dataset to elucidate statistical techniques in the peer-reviewed oral paper “When You Can't Randomize, What Can You Do? An Introduction to Propensity Score Matching for Quasi-Experimental Designs” at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies; November 16, 2008; Orlando, Florida.
Additional Contributions: Several individuals worked tirelessly as volunteer research trainees to locate and interview study participants, enter data, and help with office tasks. None of the individuals received monetary compensation, although some received university credit. They include the following: Frank Angelo, BS, Northern California Institute for Research and Education; Hillary Augustine-Vandenbos, MA; Tawney Collins-Feay, BA; Sara Hoang; Sharon Hsu, BA; and Liza Redding, MSW, from the University of Washington Addictive Behaviors Research Center; Robin Ballard, BA, Indiana University; Joelle Cook, BS; Tajiana Ellis; Sara Liu, BA; and Sonja Steck from the University of Washington; Beth Dana, BA, and Ari Natinsky, BA, Antioch University; Anne Douglass, BA, Kenyon College; Scott Hunt, MA, Fielding Graduate University; Dorian Hunter-Reel, MS, Rutgers University Center of Alcohol Studies; Matt Mutton, MSW, University of Washington–Harborview Medical Center; Kelly Parker-Maloney, BA, Pennsylvania State University; David Perlman, BS, University of Wisconsin, Madison; Stephanie Preston, BA, Pacific University; Roisin O’Connor, PhD, Dalhousie University; Laramie Smith, BA, University of Connecticut (Department of Psychology and Center for Health Intervention and Prevention); and Marcel Tassara, BS, University of Kansas. Susan Collins, PhD; M. Christina Birbaum Hove, PhD; and Michele Peake Andrasik, PhD; University of Washington Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, served as postdoctoral research trainees on this project sponsored through grant T32 AA007455-25 (Psychology Training in Alcohol Research) from the NIAAA.