Author Contributions: Dr Lieberman had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Lieberman, Holub, Moravec, Eisen, Peters, Morris.
Study concept and design: Lieberman, Holub.
Acquisition of data: Lieberman, Holub, Moravec, Morris.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Lieberman, Holub, Eisen, Peters, Morris.
Drafting of the manuscript: Lieberman, Holub.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Lieberman, Holub, Moravec, Eisen, Peters, Morris.
Statistical analysis: Holub, Peters, Morris.
Obtained funding: Lieberman.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Eisen.
Study supervision: Lieberman, Morris.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Lieberman is the executive director and Dr Eisen is the codirector of the Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative (CORI), a nonprofit organization that receives funding from federal and industry sources. The CORI database was used in this study. This relationship was reviewed and managed by the Oregon Health and Science University and Department of Veterans Affairs Conflict of Interest in Research Committees. Dr Eisen reported being a consultant for Given Imaging and a speaker for AstraZeneca, TAP, and Given Imaging.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grants UO1 DK57132 and R33-DK61778-01 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) since 1999, and funding from AstraZeneca.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding organizations played no role in the design and conduct of the study, in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.