Author Contributions: Drs Heiss and Anderson and Mr Aragaki had full access to all of the data and take full responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Heiss, Wallace,
Acquisition of data: Heiss, Wallace,
Beresford, Brzyski, Chlebowski, Gass, LaCroix, Manson, Stefanick.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: Heiss, Wallace, Anderson, Aragaki, Prentice, Rossouw.
Drafting of the manuscript: Heiss,
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Anderson, Aragaki, Beresford, Brzyski,
Chlebowski, Gass, LaCroix, Manson, Prentice, Stefanick.
Statistical analysis: Anderson, Aragaki.
Obtained funding: Anderson, Rossouw,
Administrative, technical, or material support: Rossouw.
Study supervision: Heiss, Wallace,
Financial Disclosures: Dr Howard reports that she is a consultant for Merck and the Egg Nutrition Council,
receives research support from Pfizer, Merck, and Schering-Plough,
and lectures for Schering-Plough. Dr Chlebowski reports that he has received grant funding from Lilly and Organon. Dr Gass reports that she has received funding support for multisite clinical trials from Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Roche, and Wyeth Pharmaceuticals,
and honoraria from Aventis, Eli Lilly & Co, Esprit Pharma, GlaxoSmithKline,
Novartis, Merck & Co Inc, Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals,
Roche, Upsher-Smith Laboratories Inc, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc. Dr Wallace serves on the safety and data monitoring boards for trials sponsored by Merck and Novartis. Otherwise, no other authors reported financial conflicts.
Funding/Support: The Women's Health Initiative program is funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services.
Role of the Sponsor: The National Institutes of Health had input into the design and conduct of the study and in the review and approval of this article.
WHI Investigators,Program Office: (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute,
Bethesda, Maryland) Elizabeth Nabel, Jacques Rossouw, Linda Pottern,
Shari Ludlam, Joan McGowan, Nancy Geller, Leslie Ford.
Clinical Coordinating Center: (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington) Ross Prentice,
Garnet Anderson, Andrea LaCroix, Ruth Patterson, Anne McTiernan, Barbara Cochrane, Julie Hunt, Lesley Tinker, Charles Kooperberg, Martin McIntosh,
C. Y. Wang, Chu Chen, Deborah Bowen, Alan Kristal, Janet Stanford,
Nicole Urban, Noel Weiss, Emily White; (Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina) Sally Shumaker, Ronald Prineas, Michelle Naughton; (Medical Research Laboratories, Highland Heights, Kentucky) Evan Stein, Peter Laskarzewski; (San Francisco Coordinating Center, San Francisco, California) Steven R. Cummings,
Michael Nevitt, Lisa Palermo; (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis)
Lisa Harnack; (Fisher BioServices, Rockville, Maryland) Frank Cammarata,
Steve Lindenfelser; and (University of Washington, Seattle) Bruce Psaty, Susan Heckbert.
Clinical Centers: (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York) Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller,
William Frishman, Judith Wylie-Rosett, David Barad, Ruth Freeman;
(Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas) Aleksandar Rajkovic,
Jennifer Hays, Ronald Young; (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts) JoAnn Manson, J. Michael Gaziano,
Claudia Chae, Kathryn Rexrode, Caren Solomon (Brown University, Providence,
Rhode Island) Annlouise R. Assaf, Carol Wheeler, Charles Eaton, Michelle Cyr; (Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia) Lawrence Phillips, Margaret Pedersen, Ora Strickland, Margaret Huber, Vivian Porter; (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington) Shirley A. A. Beresford,
Vicky M. Taylor, Nancy F. Woods, Maureen Henderson, Robyn Andersen;
(George Washington University, Washington, DC) Judith Hsia, Nancy Gaba, Richard Katz; (Harbor-UCLA Research and Education Institute,
Torrance) Rowan Chlebowski, Robert Detrano, Anita Nelson, Michele Geller; (Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, Oregon)
Evelyn Whitlock, Victor Stevens, Njeri Karanja; (Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, California) Bette Caan, Stephen Sidney,
Geri Bailey Jane Hirata; (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee)
Jane Morley Kotchen, Vanessa Barnabei, Theodore A. Kotchen, Mary Ann C. Gilligan, Joan Neuner; (MedStar Research Institute/Howard University,
Washington, DC) Barbara V. Howard, Lucile Adams-Campbell, Lawrence Lessin, Monique Rainford, Gabriel Uwaifo; (Northwestern University,
Chicago/Evanston, Illinois) Linda Van Horn, Philip Greenland, Janardan Khandekar, Kiang Liu, Carol Rosenberg; (Rush University Medical Center,
Chicago, Illinois) Henry Black, Lynda Powell, Ellen Mason; Martha Gulati; (Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford, California)
Marcia L. Stefanick, Mark A. Hlatky, Bertha Chen, Randall S. Stafford,
Sally Mackey; (State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook) Dorothy Lane, Iris Granek, William Lawson, Gabriel San Roman,
Catherine Messina; (The Ohio State University, Columbus) Rebecca Jackson,
Randall Harris, Electra Paskett, W. Jerry Mysiw, Michael Blumenfeld;
(University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham) Cora E. Lewis, Albert Oberman, James M. Shikany, Monika Safford, Mona Fouad; (University of Arizona, Tucson/Phoenix) Tamsen Bassford, Cyndi Thomson, Marcia Ko, Ana Maria Lopez, Cheryl Ritenbaugh; (University at Buffalo, Buffalo,
New York) Jean Wactawski-Wende, Maurizio Trevisan, Ellen Smit, Susan Graham, June Chang; (University of California at Davis, Sacramento)
John Robbins, S. Yasmeen; (University of California at Irvine) F.
Allan Hubbell, Gail Frank, Nathan Wong, Nancy Greep, Bradley Monk;
(University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles) Lauren Nathan,
David Heber, Robert Elashoff; (University of California at San Diego,
LaJolla/Chula Vista) Robert D. Langer, Michael H. Criqui, Gregory T. Talavera, Cedric F. Garland, Matthew A. Allison; (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio) Margery Gass, Suzanne Wernke; (University of Florida, Gainesville/Jacksonville) Marian Limacher, Michael Perri,
Andrew Kaunitz, R. Stan Williams, Yvonne Brinson; (University of Hawaii,
Honolulu) J. David Curb, Helen Petrovitch, Beatriz Rodriguez, Kamal Masaki, Santosh Sharma; (University of Iowa, Iowa City/Davenport)
Robert Wallace, James Torner, Susan Johnson, Linda Snetselaar, Jennifer Robinson; (University of Massachusetts/Fallon Clinic, Worcester) Judith Ockene, Milagros Rosal, Ira Ockene, Robert Yood, Patricia Aronson;
(University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark) Norman Lasser, Baljinder Singh, Vera Lasser, John Kostis, Peter McGovern;
(University of Miami, Miami) Mary Jo O’Sullivan, Linda Parker,
Timothy DeSantis, Diann Fernandez, Pat Caralis; (University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis) Karen L. Margolis, Richard H. Grimm, Mary F. Perron,
Cynthia Bjerk, Sarah Kempainen; (University of Nevada, Reno) Robert Brunner, William Graettinger, Vicki Oujevolk, Michael Bloch; (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill) Gerardo Heiss, Pamela Haines, David Ontjes, Carla Sueta, Ellen Wells; (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania) Lewis Kuller, Jane Cauley, N. Carole Milas; (University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis) Karen C. Johnson, Suzanne Satterfield, Raymond W. Ke, Stephanie Connelly, Fran Tylavsky; (University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio) Robert Brzyski, Robert Schenken, Charles Mouton; (University of Wisconsin, Madison) Gloria E. Sarto, Douglas Laube, Patrick McBride, Julie Mares-Perlman, Barbara Loevinger; (Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem,
North Carolina) Mara Vitolins, Greg Burke, Robin Crouse, Scott Washburn;
and (Wayne State University School of Medicine/Hutzel Hospital, Detroit,
Michigan) Susan Hendrix, Michael Simon, Gene McNeeley.
Former Principal Investigators and Project Officers: (Baylor College of Medicine) Jennifer Hays, John Foreyt; (Emory University) Dallas Hall; (George Washington University) Valery Miller;
(Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, Oregon) Barbara Valanis; (Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, California)
Robert Hiatt; (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland) Carolyn Clifford†; (University of California at Irvine) Frank Meyskens, Jr; (University of California at Los Angeles) Howard Judd†;
(University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH) James Liu, Nelson Watts; (University of Miami, Miami, Florida) Marianna Baum, (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) Richard Grimm; (University of Nevada, Reno) Sandra Daugherty†; (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill) David Sheps, Barbara Hulka; (University of Tennessee, Memphis) William Applegate; and (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI) Catherine Allen.†
Additional Contributions: We gratefully acknowledge the dedicated efforts of investigators and staff at the WHI clinical centers, the WHI Clinical Coordinating Center, and the NHLBI program office (listing available at http://www.whi.org). Most importantly, we recognize the WHI participants for their extraordinary commitment to the WHI program.