In the mid-20th century, the cigarette was a cultural icon in Western society—tobacco smoking was viewed as chic, promoted ubiquitously, and portrayed by sports and movie stars as an accoutrement of the good life.1 But by the close of the century, public and political perceptions were transformed by revelations about the tobacco industry's knowledge of the risks and its intent to deceive. Tobacco executives understood the health effects of smoking, the addictive quality of nicotine, and the toxicity of pesticides contained in cigarettes.
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