Author Contributions: Mr Leslie had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Leslie, Whitty, Rowland.
Acquisition of data: Leslie, Mayan, Hasan, Safi, Whitty.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Leslie, Klinkenberg, Whitty, Rowland.
Drafting of the manuscript: Leslie, Mayan, Hasan, Safi, Whitty, Rowland.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Leslie, Klinkenberg, Whitty, Rowland.
Statistical analysis: Leslie, Whitty.
Obtained funding: Leslie, Whitty, Rowland.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Leslie, Mayan, Hasan, Safi, Klinkenberg.
Study supervision: Leslie, Mayan, Hasan, Safi, Whitty, Rowland.
Financial Disclosures: Mr Leslie reported attending a GlaxoSmithKline-sponsored 1-day meeting and was paid an honorarium. Drs Whitty and Rowland reported they are supported by the Gates Malaria Partnership with funds from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. No other authors reported financial disclosures.
Funding/Support: The study was funded by GlaxoSmithKline as an independent investigator-initiated trial. Drs Whitty and Rowland are supported by the Gates Malaria Partnership. HealthNet TPO Malaria and Leishmaniasis Control Programme is funded by the European Commission, Global Fund for AIDS, TB, and Malaria, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, and World Health Organization Special Programme for Research in Tropical Disease. None of these donors contributed directly to the study.
Role of the Sponsors: GlaxoSmithKline had no role in design and conduct of the study, in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. Before implementation, GlaxoSmithKline and the sponsor (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine) provided minor comments on the protocol. HealthNet TPO implemented the project in the field, with technical support from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Data analysis was conducted by Drs Whitty and Rowland, and Mr Leslie according to a preset analysis plan approved by all authors and the data and safety monitoring board.
Disclaimer: None of these donors necessarily agree with the views expressed herein, which are solely those of the authors.
Acknowledgment: We are grateful to the individuals who participated in this study in Pakistan and Afghanistan. We thank the following institutions and individuals for their assistance: Ministry of Public Health, Afghanistan; Pakistan Medical Research Council; United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees; Malaria Reference Center, Jalalabad, Afghanistan; Union Aid for Afghan Refugees, Peshawar, Pakistan; HealthNet TPO Head Office, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; M. Nader Nadeem, MD, Sayed Rahim, MD, Nasir Mohammed, MSc, Naeem Durrani, MSc, Majeed Sidiqi, MPH (HealthNet TPO); and the technicians and community health workers who participated in this study. We thank the data and safety monitoring board for advice: A.D. Bryceson, FRCP (chair), Tasleen Akhtar, FRCP, Neal Alexander, PhD, and Brian Greenwood, FRCP, and G. Targett, DSc. None of the individuals acknowledged here were compensated for their participation.