Author Contributions: Dr Redberg had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Dhruva, Bero, Redberg.
Acquisition of data: Dhruva, Redberg.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Dhruva, Bero, Redberg.
Drafting of the manuscript: Dhruva, Redberg.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Dhruva, Bero, Redberg.
Study supervision: Redberg.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Redberg reported being a member of the FDA Circulatory System Devices Panel and a member of the California Technology Assessment Forum. No other disclosures were reported.
Additional Contributions: Mark Pletcher, MD, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCSF, provided statistical assistance, which was supported by NIH/NCRR grant UL1 RR024131 to the UCSF Clinical and Translational Science Institute. Jeffrey Tice, MD, and Steven Schroeder, MD, Department of Medicine, UCSF, provided helpful comments, and Deborah Airo, BA, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCSF, provided editorial assistance. The UCSF Pathway to Discovery in Health and Society also provided assistance. None received compensation for their contribution.