Published Online: October 12, 2009 (doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1496). This article was corrected on November 3, 2009.
Author Contributions: Drs Kumar and Fowler had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Kumar, Zarychanski, Cook, Marshall, Stelfox, Lamontagne, Lapinsky, Ahern, Hutchison, Joffe, Dodek, Hall, Fowler.
Acquisition of data: Kumar, Zarychanski, Cook, Marshall, Stelfox, Bagshaw, Choong, Lamontagne, Turgeon, Lapinsky, Ahern, Smith, Siddiqui, Khwaja, McIntyre, Menon, Hutchison, Hornstein, Joffe, Lauzier, Singh, Karachi, Ramsey, Sharma, Meade, Hall, Fowler.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Kumar, Zarychanski, Pinto, Cook, Lacroix, Stelfox, Ahern, Jouvet, Menon, Wiebe, Olafson, Ramsey, Sharma, Fowler.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kumar, Zarychanski, Pinto, Cook, Ahern, Hall, Fowler.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kumar, Zarychanski, Pinto, Cook, Marshall, Lacroix, Stelfox, Bagshaw, Choong, Lamontagne, Turgeon, Lapinsky, Smith, Siddiqui, Jouvet, Khwaja, McIntyre, Menon, Hutchison, Hornstein, Joffe, Lauzier, Singh, Karachi, Wiebe, Olafson, Ramsey, Sharma, Dodek, Meade, Fowler.
Statistical analysis: Kumar, Pinto, Fowler.
Obtained funding: Kumar, Ahern, Fowler.
Administrative, technical or material support: Cook, Marshall, Lacroix, Bagshaw, Lamontagne, Turgeon, Ahern, Smith, Siddiqui, Hutchison, Joffe, Lauzier, Sharma, Meade, Fowler.
Study supervision: Kumar, Cook, Lacroix, Siddiqui, Khwaja, Menon, Fowler.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: The Public Health Agency of Canada, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care, the Heart and Stroke Foundation Canada, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research provided support for this article.
Role of the Sponsor: The Public Health Agency of Canada, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care, the Heart and Stroke Foundation Canada, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Canadian Critical Care Trials Group H1N1 Collaborative Writing Committee: Anand Kumar, Ryan Zarychanski, Ruxandra Pinto, Philippe Jouvet, Jacques Lacroix, John Marshall, Deborah J. Cook, Rob Fowler.
Canadian Critical Care Trials Group H1N1 Collaborative Clinicians: Nova Scotia:Halifax: Richard Hall, Rob Green, Dietrich Heinzler, Lisa Julien, Debra Wright (Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre). Québec:Québec City: François Lauzier, Alexis Turgeon, Caroline Roy (CHA-Hôpital de l’Enfant-Jésus); François Lellouche, Marie-Claude Ferland (Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec). Longueuil: Germain Poirier (Hôpital Charles-LeMoyne). Sherbrooke: François Lamontagne (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke). Montreal: Phillippe Jouvet, Jacques Lacroix (CHU Sainte-Justine); Denny Laporta, David Hornstein (SMBD-Jewish General Hospital); Kosar Khwaja, Laura Banici (McGill University Health Centre); Stéphane P. Ahern, Yoanna Skrobic, Johanne Harvey (Hôpital Maisonneuve Rosemont); Martin Albert, Isabelle Arsenault (Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal). Ontario:Ottawa: Lauralyn McIntyre, Claude Gaudet, Ray Saginur, Joe Pagliarello, Irene Watpool, Tracy Mcardle (Ottawa Hospital); Kusum Menon, Dermot Doherty, Sonny Dhanani, Roxanne Ward (Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario). Kingston: John Muscedere, Nicole Godfrey, Susan Fleury (Kingston General Hospital). Toronto: Robert Fowler, Ruxandra Pinto, Neill Adhikari (Sunnybrook Hospital); Stephen Lapinsky, Cheryl Ethier, Tom Stewart (Mount Sinai Hospital); Orla Smith, John Marshall, Jan Friedrich, Karen Burns (St Michael's Hospital); Jeffrey M. Singh, John Granton, Nancy Brockest, Niall Ferguson, Andrea Matte (University Health Network); Jamie Hutchison (Hospital for Sick Children); Rob Cirone (St Joseph's Health Centre). Hamilton: Deborah Cook, Ellen MacDonald, Kelly Wilton, Andrea Tkaczyk (St Joseph's Healthcare); Karen Choong, Mark Duffett (McMaster University Children's Hospital); Maureen Meade (Hamilton Health Sciences Center, general site); Andy Freitag (Hamilton Health Sciences Center, McMaster site); Tim Karachi (Hamilton Health Sciences Center, Henderson site). Guelph: Gerry Hollinger (Guelph General Hospital). London: Claudio Martin (London Health Sciences Centre). Windsor: Eli Malus, Maureen Hrytsyk (Hotel Dieu Grace Hospital). Thunder Bay: Ravi Agarwala (Thunderbay Regional Health Sciences Centre). Manitoba:Winnipeg: Anand Kumar, Ryan Zarychanski, Faisal Siddiqui, Duane Funk, Allan Garland, Wendy Janz, Nicole Marten, Kim Wiebe, Mandy Siddiqui, Clare Ramsey, Satendra Sharma, Kendiss Olafson, Stasa Veroukis, Murray Kesselman (Health Sciences Centre/St Boniface Hospital/Grace Hospital/Victoria Hospital/Concordia Hospital/Seven Oaks Hospital). Brandon: Charles Penner (Brandon Regional Health Authority). Alberta:Calgary: Tom Stelfox (Foothills Medical Centre). Edmonton: Sean M. Bagshaw (University of Alberta Hospital); Mark Heule (Misericordia Hospital); Curtis Johnston (Royal Alexandria Hospital); Marcia Johnson (Public Health Division, Alberta Health Services); Sean Norris (Sturgeon Hospital); Ari Joffe (Stollery Children's Hospital); Daniel E. Stollery (Grey Nuns Hospital). British Columbia:Vancouver: Peter Dodek (St Paul's Hospital); Peter Skippen (BC Children's Hospital); Donald E. G. Griesdale, Denise Foster (Vancouver General Hospital). New Westminster: Sean Keenan, Steven Reynolds (Royal Columbian Hospital).
Additional Contributions: We thank our patients and the health care professionals who have delivered exemplary care to these patients in the face of uncertain risks. We also thank the following research assistants, who have worked tirelessly in the last several months: Davie Wong, Joel Braun, Aaron Guinn, Allison Stasiuk, Joan Tien, Raji Kaler, Alyson Mahar, Phil Hebert, MD, PhD, Blair Henry, MSc, Richard Mraz, PEng, Barry McLellan, MD, Michael Christian, MD, Steve Webb, MD, Simon Finfer, MD, Jamie Cooper, MD, Allison McGeer, MD, Tex Kissoon, MD, Brian Cuthbertson, MD, Mark Crowther, MD, MSc, Cathy Tansey, PhD, Craig Coopersmith, MD, and Arthur Slutsky, MD; Muhammad Mamdani, PharmD, MA, MPH, Judith Hall, MSc, Magda Melo, MSc, Bryan Boodhoo, MSc (University of Toronto Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine); and Rachel Rodin, MD (Applied Health Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael's Hospital); and the National Microbiology Laboratory of Canada, Winnipeg, the American Thoracic Society, and the Society of Critical Care Medicine. The persons listed in this section were not financially compensated for their work.