Author Contributions: Dr Schnurr had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Schnurr, Friedman, Engel, Foa, Shea, Resick, Orsillo, Haug, Turner.
Acquisition of data: Engel, Resick, Thurston, Orsillo, Haug, Bernardy.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Schnurr, Friedman, Engel, Foa, Shea, Chow.
Drafting of the manuscript: Schnurr, Friedman, Engel, Foa, Shea, Chow, Resick, Thurston.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Schnurr, Friedman, Engel, Foa, Shea, Chow, Resick, Thurston, Orsillo, Haug, Turner, Bernardy.
Statistical analysis: Chow.
Obtained funding: Schnurr, Friedman, Engel.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Schnurr, Friedman, Engel, Chow, Resick, Thurston, Orsillo, Haug, Bernardy.
Study supervision: Schnurr, Friedman, Engel, Foa, Shea, Chow, Orsillo, Haug.
Financial Disclosures: Drs Schnurr and Friedman report that they receive research funding from the Department of Veterans Affairs. Drs Engel and Shea report that they receive research funding from the Department of Defense. Drs Engel and Foa report that they receive research funding from the National Institute of Mental Health. Drs Friedman, Foa, and Resick report that they have published books on PTSD treatment for which they receive income. No other disclosures were reported.
Study Group Members:Cochairs: Paula P. Schnurr, PhD, and Matthew J. Friedman, MD, PhD, National Center for PTSD and Dartmouth Medical School; Charles C. Engel, MD, Walter Reed Army Medical Center and Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences. Executive committee: Edna B. Foa, PhD, University of Pennsylvania; Rodney Haug, PhD, Readjustment Counseling Center, Cheyenne, Wyo; Susan Orsillo, PhD, Suffolk University; Patricia A. Resick, PhD, National Center for PTSD and Boston University School of Medicine; M. Tracie Shea, PhD, Providence VA Medical Center and Brown University School of Medicine; Carole Turner, MN, VA Office of Women Veterans Health. Site investigators (participating site): Diane Castillo, PhD (Albuquerque VAMC); Shirley Quarles, PhD (Atlanta VAMC); Jean Gearon, PhD, and Sonja Batten, PhD (Baltimore VAMC); Peter Hayman, PhD (Bay Pines Vet Center); Susan Orsillo, PhD, and Eve Davison, PhD (Boston VAHCS); Dewleen Baker, MD, and Kate Chard, PhD (Cincinnati VAMC); David Lieberman, MD, and Kenneth Prabucki, MD (Cleveland VAMC); Alina Suris, PhD (Dallas VAMC); Rodney Haug, PhD (Denver Vet Center); Madeline Uddo, PhD (New Orleans VAMC); Irene Powch, PhD (Portland VAMC); Vivian Shilega, DSW, and Charles C. Engel, MD (Walter Reed Army Medical Center). National management: Nancy Bernardy, PhD, Veronica Thurston, MBA, Jennifer Price, PhD, and Liz Forshay, MSW, National Center for PTSD (project managers); Bruce Chow, MA, Nigel Gladhart, Kenneth James, PhD, and Lan Zhao (VA Cooperative Studies Program).
Funding/Support: This study was conducted with support from the VA Cooperative Studies Program and the Department of Defense.
Role of the Sponsor: The VA Cooperative Studies program was involved in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation of the manuscript. The data from the 12 sites were maintained by the VA Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center in Palo Alto, Calif, where Mr Chow performed all statistical analyses with assistance from Lan Zhao, MS.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, or any US government agency.
Acknowledgment: We thank Elizabeth Hembree, PhD, University of Pennsylvania, and Jennifer Lambert, PhD, Brown University, for coordinating the supervision of study therapists; Claudia Zayfert, PhD, Dartmouth Medical School, for supervising assessors; and Dr Hembree, Dr Lambert, Terrence Keane, PhD, Boston VA Healthcare System and Boston University School of Medicine, Kenneth James, PhD, Oregon Health & Science University, Philip Lavori, PhD, Stanford University, and Robert Rosenheck, MD, VA Connecticut Healthcare System and Yale University School of Medicine, for input on study design. Drs Hembree, Lambert, and James were paid for their work on the project. We also thank all of the therapists, research staff, and patients for their valuable contributions to the study.