Author Contributions: Dr Howard had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Howard, Manson, Stefanick, Snetselaar, Tinker, Vitolins, Prentice.
Acquisition of data: Howard, Manson, Stefanick, Beresford, Jones, Snetselaar, Thomson, Tinker, Prentice.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Howard, Manson, Stefanick, Beresford, Frank, Rodabough, Snetselaar, Prentice.
Drafting of the manuscript: Howard, Stefanick, Frank, Thomson, Tinker, Vitolins.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Howard, Manson, Stefanick, Beresford, Jones, Rodabough, Snetselaar, Thomson, Tinker, Prentice.
Statistical analysis: Frank, Rodabough, Prentice.
Obtained funding: Howard, Manson, Stefanick, Beresford, Snetselaar, Prentice.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Manson, Stefanick, Frank, Snetselaar, Thomson, Vitolins, Prentice.
Study supervision: Howard, Manson, Beresford, Thomson.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Howard has been a consultant for Merck, the Egg Nutrition Council, and General Mills; has received research support from Pfizer, Merck, and Schering-Plough; and has lectured for Schering-Plough. None of the other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: Funding was provided by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, US Department of Health and Human Services. Although the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone and calcium trials received study medications from pharmaceutical companies, the dietary trial received no outside nonfederal support.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organization, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, has representation on the steering committee, which governed the design and conduct of the study, the interpretation of the data, and preparation and approval of the article. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Project Office reviewed the article.
IndependentStatistical Analyses: All statistical analyses for the study were performed by statisticians at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Division of Public Health Sciences, under the direction of the principal investigator of the Coordinating Center, Ross Prentice, PhD.
List of WHI Investigators: Program Office: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Md: Barbara Alving, Jacques Rossouw, and Linda Pottern.
Clinical Coordinating Center: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Wash: Ross Prentice, Garnet Anderson, Andrea LaCroix, Charles L. Kooperberg, Ruth E. Patterson, Anne McTiernan; Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC: Sally Shumaker; Medical Research Laboratories, Highland Heights, Ky: Evan Stein; University of California at San Francisco: Steven Cummings.
Clinical Centers: Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY: Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller; Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex: Jennifer Hays; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass: JoAnn Manson; Brown University, Providence, RI: Annlouise R. Assaf; Emory University, Atlanta, Ga: Lawrence Phillips; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center: Shirley Beresford; George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC: Judith Hsia; Harbor–UCLA Research and Education Institute, Torrance, Calif: Rowan Chlebowski; Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, Ore: Evelyn Whitlock; Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, Calif: Bette Caan; Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee: Jane Morley Kotchen; MedStar Research Institute/Howard University, Washington, DC: Barbara V. Howard; Northwestern University, Chicago/Evanston, Ill: Linda Van Horn; Rush-Presbyterian–St Luke's Medical Center, Chicago, Ill: Henry Black; Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford, Calif: Marcia L. Stefanick; State University of New York at Stony Brook: Dorothy Lane; The Ohio State University, Columbus: Rebecca Jackson; University of Alabama at Birmingham: Cora E. Lewis; University of Arizona, Tucson/Phoenix: Tamsen Bassford; University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY: Jean Wactawski-Wende; University of California at Davis, Sacramento: John Robbins; University of California at Irvine, Orange: Allan Hubbell; University of California at Los Angeles: Howard Judd; University of California at San Diego, LaJolla/Chula Vista: Robert D. Langer; University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio: Margery Gass; University of Florida, Gainesville/Jacksonville: Marian Limacher; University of Hawaii, Honolulu: David Curb; University of Iowa, Iowa City/Davenport: Robert Wallace; University of Massachusetts/Fallon Clinic, Worcester: Judith Ockene; University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark: Norman Lasser; University of Miami, Miami, Fla: Mary Jo O’Sullivan; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis: Karen Margolis; University of Nevada, Reno: Robert Brunner; University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: Gerardo Heiss; University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa: Lewis Kuller; University of Tennessee, Memphis: Karen C. Johnson; University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio: Robert Brzyski; University of Wisconsin, Madison: Gloria E. Sarto; Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC: Denise Bonds; and Wayne State University School of Medicine/Hutzel Hospital, Detroit, Mich: Susan Hendrix.
Acknowledgment: We would like to thank Rachel Schaperow, MedStar Research Institute, for editorial assistance.