Author Contributions: Drs Montori and Guyatt had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Montori, Devereaux, Eggert, Meade, Guyatt.
Acquisition of data: Montori, Devereaux, Adhikari, Burns, Eggert, Briel, Lacchetti, Leung, Darling, Bryant, Bucher, Schünemann, Meade, Cook, Erwin, A. Sood, R. Sood, Lo, Thompson, Mills.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Montori, Devereaux, Adhikari, Burns, Lacchetti, Leung, Zhou, Guyatt.
Drafting of the manuscript: Montori, Guyatt.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Montori, Devereaux, Adhikari, Burns, Eggert, Briel, Lacchetti, Leung, Darling, Bryant, Bucher, Schünemann, Meade, Cook, Erwin, A. Sood, R. Sood, Lo, Thompson, Zhou, Mills.
Statistical analysis: Montori, Zhou, Guyatt.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Montori, Erwin, Lacchetti, Mills, Guyatt.
Study supervision: Montori, Guyatt.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Montori is a Mayo Foundation Scholar. Dr Devereaux is supported by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research Senior Research Fellowship Award. Dr Burns holds a postdoctoral fellowship from, Dr Meade is a Peter Lougheed Scholar of, and Dr Cook is a Research Chair of the Canadian Institutes for Health Research.
Role of the Sponsor: The Mayo Foundation and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the study; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Information: An online list of references for the RCTs analyzed in this article is available here.
Acknowledgment: We thank Joel G. Ray, MD, MSc, FRCPC, Department of Medicine, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, for helping us identify trials stopped early and for his insightful comments and suggestions.