Goldman L, Cook EF, Johnson PA.
et al. Prediction of the need for intensive care in patients who come to emergency
departments with acute chest pain. N Engl J Med.1996;334:1498-1504.
Selker HP, Beshansky JR, Griffith JL.
et al. Use of the acute cardiac ischemia time-insensitive predictive instrument
(ACI-TIPI) to assist with triage of patients with chest pain or other symptoms
suggestive of acute cardiac ischemia: a multicenter, controlled clinical trial. Ann Intern Med.1998;129:845-855.
Mehta RH, Eagle KA. Missed diagnoses of acute coronary syndromes in the emergency room—continuing
challenges. N Engl J Med.2000;342:1207-1210.
Schor S, Behar S, Modan B, Barell V, Drory J, Kariv I. Disposition of presumed coronary patients from an emergency room: a
follow up study. JAMA.1976;236:941-943.
McCarthy BD, Beshansky JR, D'Agostino RB, Selker HP. Missed diagnoses of acute myocardial infarction in the emergency department:
results from a multicenter study. Ann Emerg Med.1993;22:579-582.
Lee TH, Rouan GW, Weisberg MC.
et al. Clinical characteristics and natural history of patients with acute
myocardial infarction sent home from the emergency room. Am J Cardiol.1987;60:219-224.
Pope JH, Aufderheide TP, Ruthazer R.
et al. Missed diagnoses of acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department. N Engl J Med.2000;342:1163-1170.
Rusnak RA, Stair TO, Hansen K, Fastow JS. Litigation against the emergency physician: common features in cases
of missed myocardial infarction. Ann Emerg Med.1989;18:1029-1034.
Pozen MW, D'Agostino RB, Selker HP.
et al. A predictive instrument to improve coronary-care-unit admission practices
in acute ischemic heart disease: a prospective multicenter clinical trial. N Engl J Med.1984;310:1273-1278.
Goldman L, Cook EF, Brand DA.
et al. A computer protocol to predict myocardial infarction in emergency department
patients with chest pain. N Engl J Med.1988;318:797-803.
Selker HP, Griffith JL, Beshansky JR.
et al. Patient-specific predictions of outcomes in myocardial infarction for
real-time emergency use: a thrombolytic predictive instrument. Ann Intern Med.1997;127:538-556.
Farkouh ME, Smars PA, Reeder GS.
et al. A clinical trial of a chest pain observation unit for patients with
unstable angina. N Engl J Med.1998;339:1882-1888.
Tatum JL, Jesse RL, Kantos MC.
et al. Comprehensive strategy for the evaluation and triage of the chest pain
patient. Ann Emerg Med.1997;29:116-125.
Selker HP, Zalenski RJ, Antman EM.
et al. An evaluation of technologies for identifying acute cardiac ischemia
in the emergency department: executive summary of the National Heart Attack
Alert Program Working Group Report. Ann Emerg Med.1997;29:1-12.
Zalenski RJ, McCarren M, Roberts R.
et al. An evaluation of a chest pain diagnostic protocol to exclude acute
cardiac ischemia in the emergency department. Arch Intern Med.1997;157:1085-1091.
Goodacre SW. Should we establish chest pain observation units in the UK? a systematic
review and critical appraisal of the literature. J Accid Emerg Med.2000;17:1-6.
Lee TH, Pearson SD, Johnson PA.
et al. Failure of information as an intervention to modify clinical management:
a time-series trial in patients with chest pain. Ann Intern Med.1995;122:434-437.
McGinn TG, Guyatt GH, Wyer PC.
et al. Users' guides to the medical literature, XXII: how to use articles
about clinical decision rules. JAMA.2000;284:79-84.
Reilly B, Durairaj L, Husain S.
et al. Performance and potential impact of a chest pain prediction rule in
a large public hospital. Am J Med.1999;106:285-291.
Durairaj L, Reilly B, Das K.
et al. Emergency department admissions to inpatient cardiac telemetry beds:
a prospective cohort study of risk stratification and outcomes. Am J Med.2001;110:7-11.
Reilly BM, Evans AT, Schaider JJ, Wang Y. Triage of patients with chest pain in the emergency department: a comparative
study of physicians' decisions. Am J Med.2002;112:95-103.
Martinez E, Reilly B, Evans A, Roberts RR. The observation unit: a new interface between inpatient and outpatient
care. Am J Med.2001;110:274-277.
Canto JG, Shlipak MG, Rogers WJ.
et al. Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and mortality among patients
with myocardial infarction presenting without chest pain. JAMA.2000;283:3223-3229.
Goldman L. Telemetry or not telemetry: a great leap forward or a waste of resources? Am J Med.2001;110:67-68.
Diamond GA, Forrester JS. Analysis of probability as an aid in the clinical diagnosis of coronary
artery disease. N Engl J Med.1979;300:1350-1358.
Miettinen OS, Nurminen M. Comparative analysis of two rates. Stat Med.1985;4:213-226.
Zalenski RJ, Rydman RJ, Ting S, Kampe L, Selker HP. A national survey of emergency department chest pain centers in the
United States. Am J Cardiol.1998;81:1305-1309.
Mace SE, Shah J. Observation medicine in emergency medicine residency programs. Acad Emerg Med.2002;9:169-171.
Panju AA, Hemmelgarn BR, Guyatt GH, Simel DL. Is this patient having a myocardial infarction? JAMA.1998;280:1256-1263.
Antman EM, Cohen M, Bernink P.
et al. The TIMI risk score for unstable angina/non-ST elevation MI: a method
for prognostication and therapeutic decision-making. JAMA.2000;284:835-842.
Braunwald E, Antman EM, Beasley JW.
et al. ACA/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with unstable angina
and non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: executive summary
and recommendations: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American
Heart Association task force on practice guidelines (committee on the management
of patients with unstable angina). Circulation.2000;102:1193-1209.
Calvin JE, Klein LW, VandenBerg BJ.
et al. Risk stratification in unstable angina: prospective validation of the
Braunwald classification. JAMA.1995;273:136-141.
Ohman EM, Granger CB, Harrington RA, Lee KL. Risk stratification and therapeutic decision making in acute coronary
O'Rourke RA, Hochman JS, Cohen MC, Lucore CL, Popma JL, Cannon CP. New approaches to diagnosis and management of unstable angina and non-ST-segment
elevation myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med.2001;161:674-682.
Nichol G, Walls R, Goldman L.
et al. A critical pathway for management of patients with chest pain who are
at low risk for myocardial ischemia: recommendations and potential impact. Ann Intern Med.1997;127:996-1005.
Hamm CW, Goldmann BU, Heeschen C, Kreymann G, Berger J, Meinertz T. Emergency room triage of patients with acute chest pain by means of
rapid testing for cardiac troponin T or troponin I. N Engl J Med.1997;337:1648-1653.
Antman EM, Tanasijevic MJ, Thompson B.
et al. Cardiac-specific troponin I levels to predict the risk of mortality
in patients with acute coronary syndrome. N Engl J Med.1996;335:1342-1349.
Ohman EM, Armstrong PW, Christenson RH.
et al. Cardiac troponin T levels for risk stratification in acute myocardial
ischemia. N Engl J Med.1996;335:1333-1341.
de Lemos JA, Morrow DA, Bentley JH.
et al. The prognostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with
acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med.2001;345:1014-1021.
Bayes-Genis A, Conover CA, Overgaard MT.
et al. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A as a marker of acute coronary
syndromes. N Engl J Med.2001;345:1022-1029.