Author Contributions: Ms Isanaka had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Nombela, Poupard, Van Beckhoven, Gaboulaud, Guerin, Grais.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: Isanaka, Nombela, Djibo, Guerin, Grais.
Drafting of the manuscript: Isanaka.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Isanaka, Nombela, Djibo, Poupard, Van Beckhoven, Gaboulaud, Guerin, Grais.
Statistical analysis: Isanaka, Grais.
Obtained funding: Guerin, Grais.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). Ms Isanaka was supported in part by National Cancer Institute grant R25-CA098566.
Role of the Sponsor: MSF reviewed the final study protocol but had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank the Ministry of Health of Niger, in particular Amina Yaya, MD (Nutrition Division), and the Regional Public Health Office of Maradi for their support of this project. We thank the field teams of Epicentre and MSF and our dedicated teams of translators, research nurses, and nutrition assistants for their support in gathering data. In particular, we wish to thank the Program Director, Isabelle Defourny, MD (MSF), for her critical and precious insight into the operation of the MSF program in Niger and support of this research and Olivier Cheminat, MSc, Thomas Roederer, MSc, Nael Lapidus, MD, Emmanuelle Robert, MA, and Alexandra Simon, RN (all of Epicentre) for their dedication and work on ensuring the data collection in this study. We also wish to thank Head of Mission Thierry Climat, MA, Medical Coordinator Susan Shepherd, MD, and Field Coordinator Gwenola Seroux, RN, as well as Emmanuel Drouhin, BA (all of MSF), for their help in facilitating this study. André Briend, MD, PhD (World Health Organization), provided important comments on both the protocol and draft of the manuscript. We also sincerely thank Alain Moren, MD, MPH, PhD (Epiconcept), Donna Spiegelman, ScD (Harvard School of Public Health), and P. Gregg Grennough, MD, MPH (Harvard Humanitarian Initiative), for their statistical advice and comments. None of these individuals received compensation for this study.