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Letters |

Disease-Specific Mortality Among Elite Athletes

Urho M. Kujala, MD, PhD; Heikki O. Tikkanen, MD, PhD; Seppo Sarna, PhD; Eero Pukkala, PhD; Jaakko Kaprio, MD, PhD; Markku Koskenvuo, MD, PhD
JAMA. 2001;285(1):44-45. doi:10.1001/jama.285.1.39.
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To the Editor: Studies on the long-term survival of athletes have yielded conflicting results.1,2 We investigated whether the mortality rates of elite athletes varies by participation in different types of sports and how they differ from those of the general population.

Yamaji  KShephard  RJ Longevity and causes of death of athletes. J Hum Ergol (Tokyo). 1977;6:15-27.
Sarna  SKaprio  J Life expectancy of former elite athletes. Sports Med. 1994;17:149-151.
Sarna  SSahi  TKoskenvuo  MKaprio  J Increased life expectancy of world class male athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25:237-244.
Åstrand  P-ORodahl  K Textbook of Work Physiology: Physiological Bases of Exercise. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co; 1986:412-415.
Kujala  UMSarna  SKaprio  JTikkanen  HOKoskenvuo  M Natural selection to sports, later physical activity habits and coronary heart disease. Br J Sports Med. 2000;6:445-449.

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