Author Contributions: Ms Hashemian had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Hashemian, Khoshnood, Kasl, Southwick.
Acquisition of data: Hashemian, Falahati.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Hashemian, Khoshnood, Desai, Kasl, Southwick.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hashemian, Southwick.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hashemian, Khoshnood, Desai, Falahati, Kasl, Southwick.
Statistical analysis: Hashemian, Desai, Kasl.
Obtained funding: Hashemian, Khoshnood.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hashemian, Khoshnood, Falahati, Southwick.
Study supervision: Hashemian, Khoshnood, Kasl, Southwick.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: The costs of travel and data collection were sponsored by the following organizations: (1) Applied Social Issues Internship Award, The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues and; (2) Downs International Health Student Travel Fellowship, Yale University. Dr Desai is supported by a career development award from the VA Health Services Research and Development Service (MRP 02-259-2).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We thank Shahriar Khateri, MD, and Mohammad Reza Soroush, MD, from Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center for their strong support of this project. We gratefully acknowledge Ali Rowhani Rahbar, MD, PhD, University of Washington School of Public Health and Community Medicine, for his helpful comments on the manuscript. Drs Khateri, Soroush, and Rowhani Rahbar were not compensated for their contributions.