Published Online: June 12, 2011. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.817
Author Contributions: Dr Maciejewski had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Maciejewski, Livingston, Kahwati, Henderson, Arterburn.
Acquisition of data: Maciejewski, Kavee, Henderson.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Maciejewski, Livingston, Smith, Kahwati, Henderson, Arterburn.
Drafting of the manuscript: Maciejewski, Livingston, Smith, Arterburn.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Maciejewski, Livingston, Smith, Kahwati, Henderson, Arterburn.
Statistical analysis: Maciejewski, Smith, Kavee, Henderson.
Obtained funding: Maciejewski, Arterburn.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Maciejewski, Smith, Kavee, Kahwati, Henderson.
Study supervision: Maciejewski, Arterburn.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Maciejewski reports receiving consultation funds from Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Novartis, the Surgical Review Corporation, and the Research Data and Assistance Center at the University of Minnesota and owns stock in Amgen. Dr Livingston reports receiving consulting funds from Texas Instruments. Dr Arterburn reports receiving research funding and has received salary support as a medical editor for the not-for-profit (501c) Foundation for Informed Medical Decision Making (http://www.fimdm.org), which develops content for patient education programs. The foundation has an arrangement with a for-profit company, Health Dialog, to coproduce and market these programs to health care organizations. Dr Arterburn was formerly with the Cincinnati Veterans Affairs and Dr Livingston was formerly with the Dallas Veterans Affairs. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by the Office of Research and Development, Health Services Research and Development Service, Department of Veterans Affairs (IIR 05-201, SHP 08-137). Dr Maciejewski was also supported by a Research Career Scientist award from the Department of Veterans Affairs (RCS 10-391).
Role of the Sponsor: The Health Services Research and Development Service, Department of Veterans Affairs had no role in the design, conduct, collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Veterans Affairs, the US government, Duke University, the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, the University of Texas, the University of Colorado, the Group Health Research Institute, or the University of Washington. Dr Livingston, a JAMA Contributing Editor, did not participate in the review of or decision to publish this article.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge helpful comments from Daniel Almirall, PhD, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Robert (Skip) Woolson, PhD, Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham VA Medical Center, and Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina; Eugene Oddone, MD, MS, Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham VA Medical Center, and Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina; and Seth Eisen, MD, Department of Veterans Affairs, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. No one received financial compensation for his/her contributions. We thank the VA Surgical Quality Data Use Group for its role as scientific advisor and for the critical review of data use and analysis presented in this article.