Author Contributions: Dr George had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: George, Arnaoutakis, Kemp, Baumgartner, Conte, Shah.
Acquisition of data: George, Arnaoutakis.
Analysis and interpretation of data: George, Arnaoutakis, Merlo, Shah.
Drafting of the manuscript: George, Arnaoutakis.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: George, Arnaoutakis, Merlo, Kemp, Baumgartner, Conte, Shah.
Statistical analysis: George, Arnaoutakis, Merlo, Kemp.
Study supervision: Baumgartner, Conte, Shah.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Conte reported that he receives research support from Thoratec, Heartware, and Medtronic; otherwise no other conflicts of interest were reported.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by grant T32 2T32DK007713-12 from the National Institutes of Health (Dr George). Dr George is the Hugh R. Sharp Cardiac Surgery Research Fellow. Dr Arnaoutakis is the Irene Piccinini Investigator in Cardiac Surgery.
Role of the Sponsor: No funding organization or sponsor had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.