Published Online: May 16, 2011 (doi:10.1001/jama.2011.697).
Author Contributions: Dr Lilly had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Lilly, Zhao, Baker, Irwin.
Acquisition of data: Lilly, Cody, Zhao, Landry, McIlwaine, Chandler.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Lilly, Zhao, Landry, Baker, Irwin.
Drafting of the manuscript: Lilly, Zhao.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Lilly, Cody, Zhao, Landry, Baker, McIlwaine, Chandler, Irwin.
Statistical analysis: Lilly, Zhao, Baker.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Lilly, Cody, Landry.
Study supervision: Lilly, Chandler.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This project was funded in its entirety by the University of Massachusetts.
Role of the Sponsors: No funding organization or sponsor was involved in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
University of Massachusetts Memorial Critical Care Operations Group: Nicholas A. Smyrnios, MD, Stephen O. Heard, MD, Nicholas Hemeon, Timothy A. Emhoff, MD, Peter H. Bagley, MD, Sara E. Cody, Michael J. Davis, Cheryl Lopriore, Greg Wongkam, Diane Henry, J. Matthias Walz, MD, Margaret Naughton, BSN, RN, Michelle M. Fernald, MS, RN, Debra Lynn Svec, RN, Karen Ostiguy, MSN, Nam Heui Kim, MD, Cheryl H. Dunnington, MS, RN, Nancy Simon, MS, RN, M. Elizabeth Colo, MS, RN, Bruce J. Simon, MD, Karen Shea, MS, RN, Wiley R. Hall, MD, Robert Spicer, RN, Lynn Harrison, MD, Naomi F. Botkin, MD, Craig Smith, MD, Gail Frigoletto, BSN, RN, Melinda Darrigo, MS, NP, Cathy Pianka, MS, RN, Linda Josephson, MS, RN, Khaldoun Faris, MD, Scott E. Kopec, MD, Scott Leonard, MBA, RRT, Cynthia T. French, MS, ANP-BC, Helen M. Flaherty, MS, RN, Sara Fine, and Walter H. Ettinger Jr.