Author Contributions: Dr Groeneveld had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Epstein, Polsky, Groeneveld.
Acquisition of data: Epstein, Polsky, Groeneveld.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Epstein, Polsky, F. Yang, L. Yang, Groeneveld.
Drafting of the manuscript: Epstein, Polsky, Groeneveld.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Epstein, Polsky, F. Yang, L. Yang, Groeneveld.
Statistical analysis: Epstein, Polsky, F. Yang, L. Yang, Groeneveld.
Obtained funding: Polsky, Groeneveld.
Administrative, technical, or material support: F. Yang, L. Yang.
Study supervision: Groeneveld.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grants 1R01HL086919 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and 1R01HS018403 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. This work was also funded in part under a grant from the Pennsylvania Department of Health.
Role of the Sponsors: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the Pennsylvania Department of Health had no role in the design and conduct of the study, in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: Gina Pugliano, MA (research assistant, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) provided assistance with the production of this article. No compensation was received for her contribution.