Moral pluralism is a valuable aspect of a free society1 but sometimes creates conflicts in medical care when individual physicians object to providing certain legal but morally controversial services, such as abortion, physician-assisted suicide (where it is legal), and palliative sedation to unconsciousness. Genuine conscience-based refusals (CBRs) are refusals in which a physician believes that providing the requested service would violate his or her core moral beliefs (religious or secular), thereby causing personal moral harm.2 Conscience-based refusals should be a “shield” to protect individual physicians from being compelled to violate their core moral beliefs rather than a “sword” to force their beliefs onto patients. This partially explains why many physicians who invoke CBRs refer their patients to physicians willing to provide the requested care.
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