Author Contributions: Dr Gagne had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Goldberg, Schneeweiss, Gagne.
Acquisition of data: Goldberg, Kowal, Gagne.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Goldberg, Schneeweiss, Kowal, Gagne.
Drafting of the manuscript: Goldberg, Gagne.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Schneeweiss, Kowal, Gagne.
Statistical analysis: Goldberg, Gagne.
Obtained funding: Schneeweiss.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Kowal, Gagne.
Study supervision: Schneeweiss, Gagne.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Schneeweiss reported serving on the Scientific Advisory Board of Healthcore Inc and serving as a consultant to WHISCON and Booz & Co. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by internal resources of the Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women's Hospital.
Role of the Sponsor: Brigham and Women's Hospital had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We gratefully acknowledge Judith Jones, MD, PhD (Degge Group Ltd), for helpful discussions about an earlier draft of the manuscript. Dr Jones did not receive any compensation for her contributions.