Author Contributions: Drs Morikawa and Ogino had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Morikawa, Kuchiba, and Yamauchi contributed equally.
Study concept and design: Morikawa, Chan, Fuchs, Ogino.
Acquisition of data: Morikawa, Yamauchi, Meyerhardt, Shima, Nosho, Chan, Fuchs, Ogino.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Morikawa, Kuchiba, Meyerhardt, Chan, Giovannucci, Fuchs, Ogino.
Drafting of the manuscript: Morikawa, Yamauchi, Chan, Fuchs, Ogino.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Morikawa, Kuchiba, Meyerhardt, Shima, Nosho, Chan, Giovannucci, Fuchs, Ogino.
Statistical analysis: Morikawa, Kuchiba, Chan, Fuchs, Ogino.
Obtained funding: Fuchs, Ogino.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Morikawa, Shima, Fuchs, Ogino.
Study supervision: Fuchs, Ogino.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Chan reported being a consultant for Bayer Healthcare. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by US National Institute of Health grants P01CA87969, P01CA55075, P50CA127003, K07CA122826, R01CA151993, and R01CA137178 and by grants from the Bennett Family Fund and the Entertainment Industry Foundation through the National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance. Dr Morikawa was supported by a fellowship grant from the Japan Society for Promotion of Science. Dr Chan is a Damon Runyon Clinical Investigator.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Cancer Institute or the National Institutes of Health.
Additional Contributions: We deeply thank the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohort participants who have agreed to provide us with information through questionnaires and biological specimens and hospitals and pathology departments throughout the United States for generously providing us with tissue specimens. We thank the following state cancer registries for their help: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, Wyoming.