Author Contributions: Dr Cram and Ms Lu had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Cram, Lu, Wolf, Li.
Acquisition of data: Cram, Vaughan-Sarrazin, Cai.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Cram, Lu, Kaboli, Vaughan-Sarrazin, Li.
Drafting of the manuscript: Cram, Lu.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Cram, Lu, Kaboli, Vaughan-Sarrazin, Cai, Wolf, Li.
Statistical analysis: Cram, Lu, Cai.
Obtained funding: Cram.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Lu, Wolf.
Study supervision: Vaughan-Sarrazin.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Cram was supported by a K23 career development award (RR01997201) from the National Center for Research Resources at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Robert Wood Johnson Physician Faculty Scholars Program. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute at NIH also provided support to Dr Cram (R01 HL085347-01A1) and Dr Li (R01 AG033202).
Role of the Sponsor: The National Center for Research Resources at NIH and the Robert Wood Johnson Physician Faculty Scholars Program had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Conflict of Interest: The authors report no conflicts of interest. Dr Cram reports having received consulting fees from The Consumers Union (publisher of Consumer Reports magazine) and Vanguard Health Inc for advice provided on quality improvement initiatives.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the US Department of Veterans Affairs.