Author Contributions: Dr. Li had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Li, Paredes, Ribaudo, Svarovskaia, Geretti, Masquelier, Miller, Kuritzkes.
Acquisition of data: Li, Ribaudo, Svarovskaia, Metzner, Kozal, Huppler Hullsiek, Balduin, Jakobsen, Geretti, Thiebaut, Ostergaard, Masquelier, Johnson.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Li, Paredes, Ribaudo, Svarovskaia, Metzner, Kozal, Huppler Hullsiek, Balduin, Jakobsen, Geretti, Masquelier, Johnson, Miller, Kuritzkes.
Drafting of the manuscript: Li, Geretti, Kuritzkes.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Li, Paredes, Ribaudo, Svarovskaia, Metzner, Kozal, Huppler Hullsiek, Balduin, Jakobsen, Geretti, Thiebaut, Ostergaard, Masquelier, Johnson, Miller, Kuritzkes.
Statistical analysis: Li, Paredes, Ribaudo, Svarovskaia, Hupler Hullsiek, Geretti.
Obtained funding: Li, Kozal, Kuritzkes.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Li, Metzner, Kozal, Balduin, Jakobsen, Geretti, Ostergaard, Johnson.
Study supervision: Paredes, Geretti, Miller, Kuritzkes.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Li reported receiving research support from Bristol-Myers Squibb and serving as a consultant for Tibotec. Dr Paredes reported having received consulting fees from Pfizer and grant support from Pfizer, Siemens, Merck, and Boehringer Ingelheim. Drs Svarovskaia and Miller are employees of, and report holding stock in, Gilead Sciences Inc. Dr Metzner reported receiving travel grants and honoraria from Gilead, Roche Diagnostics, GlaxoSmithKline, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Tibotec, and Abbott, and receiving a research grant from Gilead. Yale University receives grant support from Merck, Pfizer, Gilead, Abbott, ViiV, and Bristol-Myers Squibb for studies for which Dr Kozal serves as the principal investigator. Dr Kozal reported receiving royalties from patents owned by Stanford University for some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostic tests. Dr Ostergaard reported receiving research grants from Tibotec, Roche, Bristol-Myers Squibb, GlaxoSmithKline, and Merck; educational grants from GlaxoSmithKline and Merck; and speaker's fees from Abbott, Tibotec, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Merck, and GlaxoSmithKline. Dr Masquelier reported receiving research grants from Pfizer and Janssen-Cilag and speaker's fees from Merck, Pfizer, Gilead, Janssen-Cilag, and ViiV Healthcare. Dr Kuritzkes reported serving as a consultant to and/or receiving research grant support from Abbott, Avexa, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline, Human Genome Sciences, Merck, Oncolys, Pfizer, Roche, Siemens, Tobira, Vertex, ViroStatistics, and ViiV Healthcare. No other authors reported conflicts of interest relevant to this article.
Funding/Support: Dr Li is supported by a Clinical Investigator Training Program Fellowship: Harvard/MIT Health Sciences and Technology–Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, in collaboration with Pfizer Inc and Merck & Co and by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant T32 AI07387. Dr Paredes was partly supported by Collaborative HIV and Anti-HIV Drug Resistance Network (CHAIN) integrated project No. 223131, funded by the European Commission Framework 7 Program. Dr Ribaudo is supported in part by grants from NIH (Statistical and Data Management Center of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group [ACTG] U01 AI068634 and Harvard University CFAR P30 AI060354). Dr Metzner is supported by Swiss National Science Foundation grants 324700-120793 and CR32I2-127017, Gilead Sciences, and the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Collaborative HIV and Anti-HIV Drug Resistance Network (CHAIN) grant agreement No. 223131. Dr Kozal is supported by a VA Merit Award. Dr Huppler Hullsiek is supported in part by NIH grant U01 AI042170. Dr Kuritzkes is supported in part by grants from the NIH (U01 AI 068636, K24 RR016482) and an ACTG Virology Specialty Laboratory subcontract from the ACTG.
Role of the Sponsors: None of the funding organizations had any role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Previous Presentation: Presented in part at the 18th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Boston, MA, February 27-March 2, 2011.
Additional Contributions: We thank the study participants of all 10 studies, including patients from the following trials: FIRST, ACTG A5095, CNA 30021, CNA 30024, GS-01-934, ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, Swiss HIV Cohort Study, German Truvada Cohort, and the RESINA Cohort, for their contributions to this study. We thank Paul Bain, PhD (Countway Library of Medicine, Harvard Medical School), for his assistance with the systematic review and Christian Pou, MSc (IrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute), Stefano G. Giulieri, MD (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne), Brian Wine, BS (GlaxoSmithKline), Henry Zhao, PhD (GlaxoSmithKline), and Martin Gartland, PhD (ViiV Healthcare), for their help in the data collection. We wish to thank Christina Lalama, MS (Harvard School of Public Health), and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group for contributing data from ACTG A5095. None of these individuals received compensation for their contributions.