Author Contributions: Dr Bohnert had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Bohnert, Valenstein, Bair, McCarthy, Ilgen, Blow.
Acquisition of data: McCarthy, Blow.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Bohnert, Valenstein, Bair, Ganoczy, McCarthy, Blow.
Drafting of the manuscript: Bohnert, Bair.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Valenstein, Bair, Ganoczy, McCarthy, Ilgen, Blow.
Statistical analysis: Bohnert, Ganoczy.
Obtained funding: Bohnert, Blow.
Administrative, technical, or material support: McCarthy.
Study supervision: Valenstein, Ilgen, Blow.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Bair reported having a 1-time advisory board involvement with Purdue Pharma. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was financially supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Mental Health Services, Patient Care Services, and a Health Services Research and Development Service (HSR&D) Career Development Award (CDA-09-204; A.S.B.B.).
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsor had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript or the decision to submit.
Additional Contributions: Anna Eisenberg, MPH, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Medical School, provided editorial assistance, for which she was compensated as part of regular employment.