JAMA. 1903;XL(12):749-753. doi:10.1001/jama.1903.92490120001001.
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The results which are to be presented in outline in this paper have been obtained in researches carried on in 1897-98 and in 1901 in the Laboratory of Physiology of the Harvard Medical School, and they are part of an extensive investigation into the mechanical factors of digestion to be carried on during the next few years. The method thus far pursued has been that of mixing with the food subnitrate of bismuth, a harmless, almost inert, powder, opaque to the x-rays, and then with the fluorescent screen observing the changes in the shadows of the alimentary contents as they are worked on by the muscles of the digestive organs. The clearness with which masses of food can be seen is indicated in Figure 1, a radiograph of a cat. Observations have been made chiefly on cats, but many of these observations have been confirmed on dogs, rats and guinea-pigs,


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