Analysis of accounts in newspapers revealed that, in Norway, victims of asphyxiation treated by mouth-to-mouth inflation were mostly children and young people. The mortality rate was the same whether submersion had occurred in fresh or sea water. Close questioning of 40 successful rescuers showed that 21 had learned the procedure of oral inflation only from printed material or radio and performed well. The other 19, whose training included practice on manikins or conscious persons, performed better in actual emergencies. A correlation was found to exist between the period of artificial ventilation required and the duration of subsequent unconsciousness. Trismus and vomiting were comparatively rare during oral inflation. Occurring more frequently after the return of spontaneous breathing, such episodes did not seriously impair the procedure. Three victims survived after more than 1 hour of artificial breathing.