A Plea for a SAFER Practice in Medicine

Stephen N. Steen, ScD, MD
JAMA. 1963;185(9):733. doi:10.1001/jama.1963.03060090065030.
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To the Editor:—  The success of the Link-Trainer in teaching prospective pilots the use of complex equipment and conditioning his responses to simulated flying conditions is unquestioned. Anesthesiology, because of its dependence on complex machines and the necessity for judgment in evaluating and responding appropriately to abnormal clinical situations, is a unique area in medicine for the application of such equipment. The development of such a device, which we refer to as SAFER (Simulator of Anesthetic Functions for Education and Research), would require (1) an anesthetic apparatus modified for dual-control and/or programming which would permit evaluation of the management of the apparatus in response to the clinical problem as well as technical malfunction of the machine, and (2) a phantom human incorporating electromechanical and electronic analogues of organ systems which could be programmed to simulate responses to the clinical administration of anesthesia.The implementation of SAFER will undoubtedly lead to


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