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JAMA. 1967;199(9):39-50. doi:10.1001/jama.1967.03120090015004.
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Heterologous Valves Function In Man  Successful transplantation of aortic valves from pigs to men was reported at a joint meeting in Toronto of the Society of University Surgeons and the British Surgical Research Society.No immuno-suppressive drugs were prescribed for the patients.Twenty-nine of 41 patients in the series have functioning heterologous valves today, including the first patient who was operated on in September 1965. Carlos M.G. Duran, MD, first assistant in cardiac surgery, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, England, reported: "Some do have valves that are not functioning perfectly, but the incompetence is not serious and has not increased since first noted."

Valves Replaced  Heterologous valves were nonfunctioning from the start in five patients, and these were replaced with prosthetic valves. Another patient died two months postoperatively, the heterologous valve being responsible for death. One year after transplantation, another patient was found to have an incompetent valve—the cusps had thickened


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