So rare is carcinoma of the female urethra that even the urologist, over a period of 30 to 40 years, will probably see no more than half a dozen or so of these tumors. In fact, as Grabstald and his associates report elsewhere in this issue (p 835), during a period of 40 years only 79 patients with cancer of the urethra were seen at the Memorial Hospital for Cancer and Allied Diseases. Few physicians will have the opportunity of studying such a large series.
Fifty-nine of the 79 women had epidermoid Carcinoma, suggesting a possible progression through a stage of squamous metaplasia based on chronic inflammation, suppuration, or hormonal changes. The large majority of these tumors were found in women after the menopause. It is also interesting that carcinoma of the female urinary bladder is seldom seen during the reproductive years. This certainly suggests a possible endocrine background for