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The Electrocardiogram and Vectorcardiogram in Congenital Heart Disease

Massimo Calabresi, MD
JAMA. 1966;197(7):595-596. doi:10.1001/jama.1966.03110070119045.
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This small volume, presenting the electrocardiographic findings in congenital malformations, is divided in two parts. Part 1 introduces the basic concepts of electrocardiography, then describes the normal electrocardiogram and vectorcardiogram (Grishman cube method) and the abnormalities characteristic of right, left, or combined hypertrophy and of right or left bundlebranch block. Part 2 presents a classification of cardiac malformations based on types and localization of hypertrophy, and on presence or absence of cyanosis. A description of the findings in the individual defects, as seen in the scalar, 12-leads electrocardiogram and in the vectorial loops, follows.

The first part is an attempt to make the "nonexperienced reader" able to use the information given in part 2. The result is disappointing, for this introduction is inadequate for the beginner and superfluous for the expert.

The detailed analysis of electrocardiographic findings in each malformation is repetitious rather than informative. This, I believe, could not


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