Diagnosis of acute gonorrhea was made for 350 male inmates who were treated in a controlled clinicolaboratory program using four antibiotic schemata. Low failure rates, 1.8% and 2.1%, respectively, were observed with oxytetracycline therapy and procaine penicillin G, 2.4 million units, administered immediately. Procaine penicillin G in four daily doses of 600,000 units yielded 3.7% failures. Repository penicillin, 2.4 million units, administered immediately, increased treatment failures to 5.9%. Nonspecific urethritis sequelae were markedly diminished with the oxytetracycline regimen. In vitro observations revealed all gonococci strains studied were sensitive to penicillin and oxytetracycline despite occasional in vivo treatment failures. Treatment failure rates indicate the need to resurvey gonorrhea therapy at periodic intervals. Organisms of the tribe Mimeae were not encountered in this study; until substantive evidence is offered this group should be eliminated from further serious consideration in gonorrhea in men.