Here is a work of love, on which the author has spent over two years after he retired from his post as clinical research director of the Wellcome Research Laboratories in Kent. Dr. Parish is well fitted for his role as historian, for he brings to his work personal contacts with many of the great international figures in the field over two generations, and his own lifetime career in bacteriology and human immunization has provided an intimacy with some of the controversies which still give an 18th-century flavor to an endeavor that currently aspires to belong to the 20th.
It all began with Jenner. Or did it? There was the interesting farmer and cattle breeder, Benjamin Jesty, who scratched the arms of his wife and two sons with a "stocking needle" and inserted material from the udders of cows sick with cowpox. All this 20 years before Jenner began his