We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Synthesis of Human Insulin Reported by Brookhaven Team

JAMA. 1966;195(3):33. doi:10.1001/jama.1966.03100030015004.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Total synthesis of human insulin has been reported by biochemists at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Medical Research Center.

The "from scratch" product is believed the first human protein produced in vitro, according to Panayotis G. Katsoyannis, PhD.

When anticipated refinements are made in the more than 200-step process, yield will be sufficient for biochemical studies of insulin in the diabetic state, he told JAMAMedical News.

Changes in the amino acid structure of the protein may be reflected by observable changes in insulin's normal action in the body, he said.

Clinical use of the synthesized product is not feasible at this time, for several reasons.

The human insulin produced at Brookhaven has shown "considerable insulin activity" as judged by a standard animal experiment. Mice are first injected with known milliunits of "normal insulin" to produce hypoglycemia. At various dosages, certain percentages of mice go into convulsions.

Injection of the synthesized material


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.