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JAMA. 1965;194(11):1241. doi:10.1001/jama.1965.03090240075025.
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Several myeloproliferative syndromes closely simulating childhood leukemia may have a different course, a better prognosis, and possibly a different etiology. Infants with mongolism (Down's syndrome) may have a hematologic disorder which resembles congenital leukemia but is actually a disease from which the infant recovers in early childhood.1 In the mongoloid child this condition may be the result of defective regulation of granulopoiesis secondary to the chromosomal abnormality.

The American Journal of the Diseases of Children, in a recent issue, describes a leukemia-like myeloproliferative disorder which occurred in nine children, either siblings or first or second cousins.2 Hematologists first thought the disease was either subacute or chronic myelogenous leukemia, on the basis of the clinical manifestations and peripheral-blood and bone-marrow findings. Although three of these children had an acute and fatal illness similar to leukemia, two of the nine had a chronic disease and recovered completely after 10 and


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