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The Teaching of Proctology and the Role and Associations of the Specialty

Raymond J. Jackman, MD
JAMA. 1965;194(10):1102-1104. doi:10.1001/jama.1965.03090230070017.
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In Origin of Species, Charles Darwin wrote about "how plants and animals remote in the scale of nature are bound together by a web of complex relations." His example of the red clover and its relationship to the bumblebees which pollinate it is a classic in descriptive ecology. He discovered that bumblebees, which have exceptionally long tongues, are the only insects which can effectively pollinate the deep-red clover flowers. From this he argued that the success of red clover in England can be attributed to the fact that bumblebees are so prevalent there. He then proceeded to quote an authority who had found that there were more bumblebee nests in the vicinity of towns and villages than elsewhere because field mice, which eat bumblebee combs and larvae, are scarce around towns. Field mice are scarce around towns because towns usually have a large number of cats which prey on field


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