The theme of this communication is that of the reciprocal relationship of medicine and the universities. The association between the two is an old one which can be traced to the universities of Italy and Paris in the 12th century. The medieval universities had several faculties; the conventional four were law, philosophy, theology, and medicine. However, medical schools per se gradually appeared and probably had their origin from the 17th-century schools of Holland and Scotland; as you have heard from Dr. Corner, the University of Pennsylvania's school had its origin in Edinburgh.
By and large, medicine has flowered in the great universities, for they have furnished the environment, the protection, the administration, and, frequently, the funds for its development. In turn, the medical faculties have stimulated the universities and often raised their intellectual levels and standards. Although the proprietary schools that developed during the 19th century in the United States